Table of Contents
Class History...................................................................................................................................... 3
Class Association Officers.................................................................................................................. 5
Tanzer 16 Constitution........................................................................................................................ 7
Chief Measurer's Rulings.................................................................................................................. 32
Prototype Fleet Constitution............................................................................................................... 34
Prototype Fleet By-Laws.................................................................................................................. 38
Safety First....................................................................................................................................... 40
Yacht Racing Right-of-Way Rules In Brief........................................................................................ 41
Common Race Committee Signals..................................................................................................... 42
To Race or Not To Race, Is That the Question?................................................................................. 43
Rigging Tips: The Centerboard Preventer........................................................................................... 45
Rigging Tips: The Howe Traveler...................................................................................................... 46
More Rigging Tips............................................................................................................................ 48
SPINNAKERS: Flying The Chute (Another View of Spinnakers)........................................................ 53
Tuning Your Tanzer for LIGHT AIR................................................................................................. 54
Tuning Your Tanzer for MODERATE AIR...................................................................................... 56
Tuning Your Tanzer for HEAVY AIR.............................................................................................. 58
FLYING THE CHUTE: Getting the Most From Your Spinnaker........................................................ 60
CAPSIZES or "I didn't know this was a submarine race!”................................................................... 63
The Key to a Fast Boat is HULL PREPARATION........................................................................... 65
US National Championships............................................................................................................... 66
Mid-Atlantic District Championships.................................................................................................. 67
New England District Championships................................................................................................. 68
NC State Championships................................................................................................................... 69
Peter B. Williams, Jr. Memorial Trophy.............................................................................................. 70
In December 1970, members of the first Tanzer 16 fleet to be formed in the U.S. met at their headquarters in Raleigh, N.C. to found the National Class organization for this Canadian built one-design sailboat. Needham C. (Hap) Crowe, who had performed all of the spadework in getting a Constitution, By-Laws and Specifications from the Canadian group, who were also in the process of formation, was elected Secretary-Treasurer. The Association's objectives were stated simply to promote family day sailing and class racing under uniform rules and to prevent design changes which affected the sailing characteristics of the boat. Further, the organization would assist in the formation of fleets wherever three or more owners sail together in a geographical area, and to organize regional and national regattas where members of more than one fleet can compete.
Two unofficial National Regattas were held. One in 1969 at Oriental, N.C., with 5 boats participating and the 1970 series at Lake Waccamaw, N.C., with 17 boats. This site, home of Fleet No. 2, was used for the first U.S. Nationals run under the auspices of the new Class Association. Eighteen boats competed, including the secretary for the sister Canadian Association who drove down from Montreal. Hap Crowe became the first "official" U.S. Champion.
1972 was a spurt in membership and Class sanctioned events. The first annual New England Regional Championship was held at Falmouth, Mass., and the first North Carolina Championship at Oriental, N.C. The U.S. Nationals, held again at Lake Waccamaw, found 29 competing boats which included three from Canada and one from Pennsylvania.
1973 gave evidence of class growth and greater class awareness with increased participation at regional events and several traveling racers. The North Carolina State Championship had 29 entries at Oriental, N.C. The second annual New England Regional Championship brought five visitors to the host waters of Vineyard Sound for a total of 21 starts out of the host Falmouth Y.C. The U.S. Nationals, held for the first time at New Bern, N.C., with Fleet #1 as hosts, found entries from Kentucky and Canada to swell the starting line to 29.
1974 produced the concept of geographic district leadership and a reorganization of the Executive structure. District Governors, elected by their fleets, now serve on the Board of Directors to represent regional interests and to organize interfleet activities. The office of Commodore was also established which allows the immediate past President to provide continuity for plans made during his term of office.
1975 saw entries at the first mid Atlantic District Championship hold at Kerr Lake, home waters for Fleet #1. The New England District Championship replaced the NE Regional Championship and was won by a Canadian, a first for a U.S. Class sanctioned regatta. The association also began documenting rigging and maintenance ideas for the class membership. Some of the tips are included in this handbook.
1976 was the first year that the U.S. Nationals were held outside: of North Carolina. Entries came from Canada, many New England states and North Carolina to provide on the starting line the largest U.S. Nationals to date. The success of the 1976 Nationals has caused the officers to look into moving future Nationals to different areas of the country. This also was the first year full Class Association memberships were given to all owners of new Tanzer 16's. Since that time, the Nationals have been held in both New Bern, N.C., and again in Falmouth, Mass. The 1979 U.S. Nationals were held in
the shadow of the Edenton, N.C., Tanzer plant.
In 1979, the Class Association made an effort to put the administrative duties under the guidance of an Executive Secretary. Although this plan was not successful, the Class Association remained committed to providing full and prompt service to its members.
1982 saw the merger of the Canadian and United States class associations into one international organization serving Tanzer 16 sailors worldwide. The new international Tanzer 16 Class Association is still headquartered in Raleigh, North Carolina near Fleets #1 and #2, which are the nucleus of Tanzer 16 activity.
The cessation of production of Tanzer 16s in early 1986 and the subsequent demise of Tanzer Industries into receivership later that year threatened the continuity of our boat. Since the Tanzer 16 is too good a sailboat to allow to fade away, The Tanzer 16 Resurrection Committee was formed in the fall of 1986 for the purpose of continuing the manufacture of the boat. The Resurrection Committee was led by co-chairmen George Smart and Pete Thorn, and included Ken Whitt, Lawrence Miller, Matt Fleming, Bennett Perry and Bob Macklen. Through the efforts of this committee, the Class Association was able to raise the money necessary to purchase the trademark, molds, and rights to manufacture the Tanzer 16. With the sale of all new boats there shall be a new revenue source to the Class Association that shall be used to promote the Tanzer 16.
In the summer of 1987, the Class Association acquired the molds and the rights of manufacture for the Tanzer 16, and is currently negotiating with Frank and Rhoda Meldau, Raleigh area boat builders known for their high quality Isotope catamarans, to build Tanzer 16s. Hopefully, this exciting new development will result in a bright future for our boat. The Tanzer 16 Class can now join the ranks of other one-design class associations that own and control their boat, such as the Lightning, Snipe and Interlake.
Class Association Officers
|Secretary Treasurer||Matt Fleming|
|Chief Measurer||Pete Thorn|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Dick Coburn|
|Secretary Treasurer||Ken Whitt|
|Chief Measurer||Pete Thorn|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Ransom Kirby|
|Secretary Treasurer||Lawrence Miller|
|Chief Measurer||Hal Medlin|
|Canadian District Governor||Maurice Tyler|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Roger Chaufornier|
|New England District||Dick McLaughlin|
|Secretary Treasurer||John Manifold|
|Chief Measurer||Ivan Elliott|
|Canadian District Governor||Maurice Tyler|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Fred Dorr|
|New England District||Brooks Bridges|
|Secretary Treasurer||Dave Permar|
|Chief Measurer||Ivan Elliott|
|Canadian District Governor||Jon Quail|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Jim Lamb|
|New England District||Tim Horseman|
|Secretary Treasurer||Dave Permar|
|Chief Measurer||Ivan Elliott|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Butch Blanchard|
|New England District||Robert Smith|
|Secretary Treasurer||Ron Tilley|
|Chief Measurer||Ivan Elliott|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Marvin Pike|
|New England District||Phil Robertson|
|Secretary Treasurer||Bert Eskridge|
|Chief Measurer||Ivan Elliott|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Dick Coburn|
|New England District||Phil Robertson|
|Secretary Treasurer||Butch Blanchard|
|Chief Measurer||Dick McLaughlin|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Ron Tilley|
|New England District||Rod Baltz|
|Secretary Treasurer||Butch Blanchard|
|Chief Measurer||Dick McLaughlin|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Ron Tilley|
|New England District||Rod Baltz|
|Secretary Treasurer||Dave Gilbert|
|Chief Measurer||Dick McLaughlin|
|Mid-Atlantic District Governor||Bob Moates|
|New England District||Rod Baltz|
Tanzer 16 Constitution
Article 1: Name
The name of this organization shall be "The Tanzer 16 Class Association".
Article 2: Object
The object of the Tanzer 16 Class Association shall be to promote family daysailing and class racing under uniform rules governed by this association and to prevent design changes intending to outclass boats now constituting the Tanzer 16 Class.
Article 3: Emblem
The official emblem of the Association shall be as indicated on the sail of the official plan.
Article 4: Policy
- To cooperate with other yachting associations and, in return, to insist on strict observance of the rules of the Tanzer 16 Class Association.
- To cooperate with the manufacturer in keeping the cost of acquisition and upkeep of Tanzer 16 sloops within modest limits without sacrificing high standards of performance and seaworthiness.
- To provide sailing, racing, and instructional activities for Tanzer 16 owners.
Article 5: Organization
- A Tanzer 16 owner shall apply for membership in the Association through a fleet on whose waters he 'normally sails. If this is not possible, he may apply directly to the Association for unattached membership. In either case, his application shall be subject to refusal for cause by the Executive Committee.
- A fleet is a group of members who normally sail in a defined geographical area. It elects its own officers which must include a fleet secretary. The fleet is self-governing in all local matters not conflicting with Association rules, and has power to accept or reject applications for fleet membership.
- Three or more fleets may petition the Class Executive Committee to form a district. A district shall be represented by a District Governor who is charged to coordinate interfleet activities within the district, including district regattas, and to provide coordination of district activities with the Class Association. Additional fleets may petition the Executive Committee to join a district.
- The powers of the Association shall be vested in the Executive Committee.
Article 6: Jurisdiction
The Association has jurisdiction over all Tanzer 16 activities. Its constitution, bylaws and specifications govern all Tanzer 16 sanctioned events, regardless of by whom they are held and are binding upon all owners and fleets. All sanctioned events are those so named by the Class Executive Committee.
Article 7: Fleet Charters
- A new fleet may be granted a charter upon application to the Executive Committee by three or more members of the Association who own three or more registered Tanzer 16 sloops outside the territory of an organized fleet.
- Fleet charters may be granted or suspended by the Executive Committee, but revoked only at an annual meeting for failure to maintain in good standing a minimum membership and quota of Tanzer 16 sloops as above required, or for other adequate causes. (For terms of annual renewal, see by-laws.)
Article 8: Dues
Association dues and taxes shall be fixed by the by-laws. Fleet dues, if any, shall be fixed by the fleet. Both must be paid before a member can be in good standing in either.
Article 9: Membership Classification
- An attached member is a member of a chartered fleet and has the privilege of voting and holding office. He must be an owner of a Tanzer 16 sloop and an amateur. There are no age or sex limitations.
- An unattached member is a person meeting all attached membership requirements except that he is not a member of a fleet. He is entitled to all privileges of attached membership except fleet representation.
- An associate member is an amateur and a joint owner, member of the immediate family of an owner, or enrolled as part of the crew, of a specific Tanzer 16. An associate member cannot vote, hold office, or represent a fleet.
- A sustaining member is a person who joins the Association because of any interest in the welfare of the class. A sustaining member may not vote, hold office, or represent a fleet.
- Subject to approval of the fleets concerned, a member may belong to more than one fleet at a time, and may race his Tanzer 16 with such fleets. Such member shall have, however, only one vote in the association business and his Tanzer 16 may only qualify for sanctioned events from one fleet. Such member shall notify the association secretary which of his multiple fleet memberships is to be used for voting and qualification purposes.
- Attached or unattached membership shall be relinquished when the member ceases to be a Tanzer 16 Owner.
Article 10: Executive Committee
- Executive Officers
- a)The Executive Officers of the Tanzer 16 Class Association and their respective duties shall be as follows:
President: The President is the chief executive. He shall preside at meetings, serve as chairman of the Executive Committee, rule on procedure and jurisdiction, summarize decisions, appoint special committees, authorize payment of all bills.
Commodore: The immediate past President shall be the Commodore of the Association. In the event that the immediate past President is unwilling or unable to serve, the Executive Committee shall appoint as Commodore an active member who has previously served as an Executive Officer. The Commodore shall officiate in the absence of the President.
Secretary-Treasurer: The Secretary shall handle all correspondence, record the minutes of meetings, maintain an accurate and current record of all members, fleets, and registered Tanzer 16 sloops, issue measurement certificates, and perform all other duties pertaining to such office. As Treasurer, he shall receive all dues and fees paid to the Association, deposit funds in the depository approved by the Executive Committee, keep financial books and securities of the Association, and disburse funds in excess of two hundred dollars only upon order of the President.
Chief Measurer: The Chief Measurer shall answer questions about measurement specifications. He shall interpret the specifications concerning construction, sail plan, rigging and equipment, and shall make rulings on matters not specifically covered in the official plans and specifications. All rulings of the Chief Measurer shall be as binding as if published herein. He shall not, however, approve changes in construction specifications, sail plan, or standing riggings.
- b)The aforementioned officers shall be elected at the Annual Meeting and serve for one year, or until their successors are elected or appointed. Each shall be nominated, seconded, and voted upon separately by the fleet delegates and unattached members in the order named. The candidate for an office receiving the greatest number of votes shall be considered elected to that office. Those so elected shall take office on December 1, following election.
- c)Should the office of an Executive Officer be vacated by death, resignation, or removal for cause, the Executive Committee shall appoint from the Association a replacement to serve the remainder of the unexpired term.
- d)To be eligible for election, each of the aforementioned officers when nominated shall signify his willingness and ability to attend at least one meeting during his term of office at any location within North America which shall be selected by the Executive Committee.
- District Officers
- a)The District Office of the Association shall consist of:
District Governor: The District Governor shall be a member of the Executive
Committee and have general supervision over interfleet Tanzer 16 activities in the District. He shall represent the District on the Executive Committee, arrange for the holding of the District Regatta, promote the establishment of new fleets, provide dealer liaison and assure maintenance of all District Fleets in good standing with the Association.
District Secretary: The District Governor may appoint a District Secretary who shall officiate during the absence of the Governor and represent him as required. He shall be responsible for communication with fleets and the Association as required.
- b)The District Governor shall be elected by vote of the Fleets in each district. Each fleet shall have one vote. The election must be held in advance of the Class Association annual meeting. The District Governor shall serve the same period as Class Officers. Each fleet desiring to recommend nominees for District Governor shall submit such nominees to the Governor (or Secretary) two months prior to the annual meeting each year. Before making such nominations, such Fleets shall ascertain the willingness of its candidate to accept the office if elected. Within two weeks of the above date, the District Governor's office shall send to each Fleet Secretary of record, a ballot containing the names of all nominees and the date when elections shall close. Completed ballots shall be sent to the Class Association Secretary who shall notify the newly elected District Governor.
- c)If any district fails to hold an election as provided above, a Governor shall be appointed by the Executive Committee prior to the annual meeting.
Article 11: Executive Committee Duties
- The Executive Committee shall consist of all Executive Officers and the District Governors. A quorum shall exist if four members are present, of whom at least three are Executive Officers. Meetings may be held with lesser representation, but voting shall not be official until and unless all members of the Executive Committee are polled in writing if a quorum had not been present at the meeting.
The Executive Committee shall interpret the constitution, by-laws, and shall conduct all business and determine the policy of the Association, shall serve as the last court of appeals in disputes over constitutional rights. The Executive Committee has the power to enforce its decisions by suspensions of entire fleets or individual members. Its rulings shall be binding and final. The Executive Committee may amend the by-laws, but not the constitution.
- The Executive Committee shall appoint any committee it may deem necessary.
Article 12: Committees
- National Race Committee. A National Race Committee shall be appointed by the Executive Committee, and shall serve until twenty-four hours after the last heat of a sail-off of the National Championship Series or until all matters pertaining to the series have been resolved. The National Race Committee shall:
a) Consist of five persons named by the Executive Committee.
b) Have sole jurisdiction over all matters pertaining to the management and conduct of the National Championship Series Races, providing that the powers thereof shall not extend to other matters, nor shall it be empowered to revoke Executive Committee rulings.
c) Shall be charged with the general supervision of the Regatta.
d)Become dissolved after all protests and business have been disposed of, including a report to the secretary.
Article 13: Meetings (Annual and Special)
- The Annual Meeting shall be held during the period of and in the vicinity of the National Championship Series Races, if possible. Special Meetings by order of the Executive Committee or upon demand in writing, by twenty-five percent of the fleets or unattached members must be held. Time and place of all meetings must be fixed by the Executive Committee.
- Notice must be sent announcing any business or proposals to the last recorded secretary of each fleet and if possible to each member, in time to permit voting by mail. No business other than that stated can be transacted at any annual or special meeting.
Article 14. Delegates
- The membership of each fleet shall be responsible for the selecting and instructing or a delegate. If unable to send a delegate, the fleet shall assign a duly authorized proxy to present the fleet's views and cast its vote at all meetings. The delegate of proxy shall be certified in writing by the Fleet Secretary.
- Any number of alternates or proxies may be named, but the first in order present shall be the only one entitled to cast the fleet's votes. Only those alternates or proxies property certified in writing by the fleet secretary will be recognized.
Article 15: Voting
- Each fleet shall be entitled to cast one vote for each Tanzer 16 sloop enrolled in said fleet which has been properly recorded with the Association by an attached member in good standing, but no fleet is entitled to more than one third of the total number of votes cast. No more than one vote shall be allowed for any one member, no matter how many Tanzer 16 sloops he may own. Membership books close thirty days before any meeting, or as otherwise ordered by the Executive Committee. Votes shall be cast in accordance with the instructions of individual owners.
- All members may be heard, but only accredited delegates, proxies, alternates, and unattached members shall vote on motions. All entitled to vote must vote on each motion, unless excused by the Chairman. A majority of votes cast shall decide all questions, if not otherwise stipulated, and the Chairman shall cast the one deciding vote in case of a tie. He may also fix a time limit on speakers and debate of motions.
Article 16: Impeachments
Any member may be expelled from the Association by at least a three-fourths vote at an annual meeting.
Article 17: Amendments
- The constitution may never be suspended but may be amended at any meeting of the Association by two-thirds of the votes present, providing that notice of such proposed amendments are sent to members of the Association not less than thirty days prior to the date of the meeting.
- Amendments to by-laws and specifications may be made at any time by the Executive Committee by an affirmative vote of four-fifths of its members, and shall be enforced pending ratifications at the next meeting of the Association.
- Amendments to the specifications shall be proposed by any member to the Chief Measurer, who shall present the proposal to the Executive Committee for further study and action.
- The basic principles of Article 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 cannot be changed, nor can amendments be passed which shall render ineligible a former Tanzer 16 sloop or member whose eligibility was established under the then existing rules of this association and whose status cannot be changed to conform to the proposed amendments, nor shall retroactive legislation be passed affecting members' or fleets' constitutional rights, except by as three-fourths vote of the total voting strength of the Association. If not present a referendum may be ordered.
- The Executive Committee shall have the power to simplify, clarify or correct the language of any article if the intent of the purpose remains unchanged.
Article 18: The Registered Trademark Owner
The design and specifications of the Tanzer 16 sloop are owned by Tanzer Industries Limited, who also own the registered Tanzer 16 trademark. Tanzer Industries Limited will not make any changes to the design, equipment and specifications of the Tanzer 16 sloop without the approval of the Association. The Association will not make any changes in the specifications and equipment of the Tanzer 16 sloop without the approval of Tanzer Industries Limited. This article shall not restrict Tanzer Industries Limited from changing its source of supply for equipment of equivalent design as described in the specifications and Tanzer 16 Specifications.
Tanzer 16 By-Laws
Revised January 10, 1987
ARTICLE B-1: Fleet Business and Elections
- The official language between the fleets and the Association shall be English.
- All financial transactions between the fleets or districts and the Association shall take place in U.S. currency.
- Fleet elections shall take place so that the names of the names of the new officers shall be filed with the Association by December 31 of the year in which they are elected.
ARTICLE B-2: Shared Ownership and Chartering
- Intent: It is the intent of this article to encourage the ownership of Tanzer 16 sloops and to prohibit the practice of non-owners borrowing, Chartering or token purchasing a Tanzer 16 sloop for the purpose of racing in a series or regatta.
- Joint Ownership: Where a Tanzer 16 sloop is jointly owned in good faith by more than one person, one of the owners shall be designated as the attached or unattached member; any other joint owners shall be designated as the associate members. Only one of the owners shall be required to pay annual dues. This part owner shall be considered to be the senior co-owner and shall enjoy all the privileges of membership. The other part owner shall be considered junior co-owner. Co-owners shall be deemed to be members to the extent and only to the extent that they have the right to command a Tanzer 16 in any sanctioned race, including the National Championship Series Races, after proper qualification.
- Family Ownership: Members of the family of an owner or part owner may join the Association as associate members, provided that the owner or part owner is an attached or unattached member. The spouse or children of such an owner may register as an associate members (with the same official boat number) without the payment of an additional Association membership fee. If a family owns more than one Tanzer 16 sloop, then the helmsman of each boat must be a dues paying attached, unattached, or associate member in order to participate in class sanctioned events.
- Club Ownership: Where a recognized yacht club owns three or more Tanzer 16 sloops, one "senior member" of such club may be designated as the skipper for each boat so owned, and shall be eligible for attached or unattached member- ship. Other members of said yacht club shall be eligible for associate member-ship of the association.
- Chartering: An attached, unattached, or associate member in good standing may charter a Tanzer 16 and sail in any event provided he uses his own sails. The intent of this article is to permit members to charter a boat when their own boat is not usable due to damage or the event is too far from their home waters.
ARTICLE B-3: Eligibility and Dues
- Eligibility: A member shall not be eligible to compete in any sanctioned event until all his or her dues are paid in, accordance with the provisions of the Tanzer 16 by-laws.
- Membership Cards: Upon receipt of dues, the Secretary-Treasurer of the Association shall issue official membership cards. These cards shall show the class of membership (attached, unattached, associate or sustaining). The membership cards of attached, unattached or associate members shall show the number of the boat. That notation on the membership card is essential if the skipper plans to participate in sanctioned events.
- Dues: The Association dues shall be established annually by the Executive Committee.
- Due Date: Dues for all classes of membership arc due by the 1st of April each year. Dues shall be deemed delinquent after April 1st, except for new incoming members. Granting of membership after this date shall be at the discretion of the Executive Committee. New memberships granted after October 1st shall continue through the next year without an additional fee.
- Payment of Dues: The Association will notify each member annually in advance for his dues, but failure to receive a such notification shall not be an excuse for not paying them in time to be eligible for competition in sanctioned events or to maintain association membership.
- Fleet Dues: Fleet dues are to be established at the option of the local fleet. If any, they shall be collected and retained by the local fleet.
ARTICLE B-4: Fleet Reports
Each fleet and district is encouraged to file an annual report with the Association.
ARTICLE B-5: Official Numbers and Measurement Certificates
- An official number by which each boat shall be known will be assigned to every Tanzer 16 sloop by the Association.
- The Association shall provide blank measurement certificates to properly licensed builders of the Tanzer 16, at a cost of $15 each.
- The measurement certificate shall be used by builders of the Tanzer 16 to certify that a particular Tanzer 16 sloop, designated by its official number, has been built to conform to the official specifications of the Association.
- The measurement certificates shall be forwarded by the builder to the Secretary-Treasurer of the Association for official registration by the Association. When known, the name and address of the owner shall be shown on the certificate.
- On receipt of each measurement certificate, the Secretary-Treasurer shall affix his or her signature to it and send it to the owner if known, or if not known, retain the certificate until it is applied for by the owner.
- Upon purchase of a used Tanzer 16 sloop, the new owner, if he or she wishes to register the boat with the Association, shall obtain the measurement certificate of that sloop from the previous owner. He or she shall endorse the said certificate with his name and address and shall notify the Secretary-Treasurer in writing of his purchase, giving the official number of the Tanzer 16 sloop in question.
- The Secretary-Treasurer of the Association shall maintain a permanent file of the measurement certificate of each Tanzer 16 sloop, together with a permanent record of all names and addresses of all owners and joint owners and the names given to each sloop.
- In the event of the loss or destruction of the original measurement certificate of a Tanzer 16 class sloop, the owner of record may obtain a replacement of measurement certificate from the Secretary-Treasurer of the Association upon payment of a fee of $2.00 which shall go to the Association treasury.
ARTICLE B-6: Obligations
The Association shall not be liable for any debts contracted by its fleets or officers other than expenditure authorized by the budget or upon written order of the President and Secretary-Treasurer.
ARTICLE B-7: Sanctioned Events
Interfleet events such as regional, district, state, National or International racing events must be sanctioned by the Executive Committee, and the following restrictions shall apply.
- Racing Rules: The official racing rules for all sanctioned events, shall be the latest revisions of the International Yacht Racing Union rules (I.Y.R.U.) as adopted by the country 'in which the sanctioned event is being held. For instance, in Canada, the Canadian Yachting Association (C.Y.A.) rules shall prevail and in the U.S.A., those of the United States Yacht Racing Union (U.S.Y.R.U.) shall be used.
- Interpretation: In deciding any question, the intended meaning of the rules shall prevail. In case of actual foul, no extenuating circumstances may be considered, but they may be considered where Association rules or restrictions require interpretation and there has been no deliberate attempt to gain an unfair advantage. Precedent and the established policies of the Association shall be taken into consideration when interpreting any rule or regulation, or where the situation is not covered by rule. The rulings of the Executive Committee shall be carefully preserved for reference.
- Helmsman: The helmsman in a sanctioned event must be an attached, or associate member of the Association, and his membership must bear the sail number of the boat which he helms. The same helmsman shall be on board of a given yacht through all the races of a sanctioned event. He does not have to handle the helm throughout a race or regatta, but the helm may be taken by a crew who is not a member of the Association only for spinnaker handling or emergencies.
- Crew: The total number of persons aboard a yacht in a sanctioned event shall be two or three. All shall be amateurs. The same crew must be carried throughout all races of the event, the only exceptions being:
a)In the event of illness or other unforeseen circumstances, race committee approval of a substitute must be obtained one hour prior to the scheduled warning signal.
b)If a skipper can gain approval of two-thirds of the competitors at the skipper's meeting prior to the start of the first race, he/she may use a variety of crew in a sanctioned event. The weight of the new crew shall not substantially improve the performance of the boat, considering current circumstances.
- Sails: All sails used in any sanctioned event must be measured and approved. This notwithstanding, any sail may be challenged by another member at any time. No more than two mainsails, two jibs, two genoas, and one spinnaker shall be measured in or used in any sanctioned event.
- Compliance with Specifications: No boat which fails to comply with the specifications of the Association shall compete in a sanctioned event. Should a competing boat be found not to qualify, it shall be immediately disqualified from further competition in any sanctioned event until it is made to qualify.
- Host Fleet: The Executive Committee shall appoint a host fleet for each sanctioned event. This fleet shall be responsible for all arrangements, including the provision of race and protest committees, proper facilities, prizes, entertainment, etc. In this regard, the fleet must cooperate with, and be guided by, the Executive Committee.
- Conditions Governing Races:
a)The time and place. of all sanctioned events must be approved by the Executive Committee.
b)The race committee shall attempt to set a modified Olympic course, but if this is not possible, the course may be any course chosen by the race committee.
c)The time limit shall be two hours. If one entry finishes within the time limit, all shall be timed.
d)The low point scoring system, appendix 5A of the IYRU racing rules, shall be used. One or more throwouts may be allowed, provided that the throwout formula is published in the race circular and sailing instructions, and that the number of races after throwouts may not be less than the required minimum number of sailed races.
e)In the event of a tie for a prize-winning position in the series, the yacht which has defeated the other yacht or yachts involved the most number of times in the series shall be deemed the winner. If a tie still remains, it shall be resolved in favor of the winner of the last deciding race in a series.
ARTICLE B-8: Annual Sanctioned Events
The Executive Committee may, at its discretion, sanction other events, but the following events shall be held annually, if possible.
- National Championships: National Championships shall be open events and the following rules shall govern:
a)Purpose: To determine annually the various National Championships of the Tanzer 16 Class Association.
b)Perpetual Trophy: A suitably named trophy shall be established for each country by the Association. The Perpetual Trophies shall be held by the winning skippers until the next series, subject to approval and order of the Executive Committee.
c)Keeper Trophies: Appropriate trophies shall be provided by the Association including winner and winner crew trophies.
d)Place: The series shall be held on the waters of the country for which it is held.
e)Number of Races: At least five races over two days shall be scheduled, but the number sailed may be reduced to no less than three by the race committee, due to adverse conditions.
f)Entries: Any attached, unattached, or associate member of the Association in good standing may enter.
- District Championships: District Championships shall be open events and the following rules shall govern:
a)Purpose: To determine annually the various District Championships of the Tanzer 16 Class Association.
b)Perpetual Trophy: A suitably named trophy shall be established for each District by the Association. The Perpetual Trophies shall be hold by the winning skippers until the next series, subject to approval and order of the Executive Committee.
c)Keeper Trophies: Appropriate trophies shall be provided by the Association including winner and winner crew trophies.
d)Place: The series shall be held on the waters of the District for which it is held.
e)Number of Races: At least three races over two days shall be scheduled, but the number sailed may be reduced to no less than two by the race committee, due to adverse conditions.
f)Entries: Any attached, unattached, or associate member of the Association in good standing may enter.
- State Championships: State Championships shall be open events and the following rules shall govern:
a)Purpose: To determine annually the various State Championships of the Tanzer 16 Class Association.
b)Perpetual Trophy: A suitably named trophy shall be established for each State by the Association. The Perpetual Trophies shall be held by the winning skippers until the next series, subject to approval and order of the Executive Committee.
c)Keeper Trophies: Keeper trophies, if any, shall be provided by the fleets organizing the regatta.
d)Place: The series shall be held on the waters of the state for which it is held.
e)Number of Races: At least three races over two days shall be scheduled, but the number sailed may be reduced to no less than two by the race committee, due to adverse conditions.
f)Entries: Association members in good standing who are residents of the state are eligible for the State Championship regatta.
ARTICLE B-9: Honor Insignia
- Honor Insignia for Class Sanctioned Events: Honor insignia may be displayed on the mainsail of boats owned by winners of class sanctioned events, as follows:
a)One gold chevron for the winner of the North American Championship (when established).
b)One blue chevron for the winner of National Championship.
c)One red chevron for the winner of a District Championship.
- Fleet Championships: Each fleet may designate a fleet champion who may display a black chevron.
- Chevron Display Regulations:
a)Only one chevron may be displayed. Only the highest honor chevron should be displayed. The honor awards rank in the following order:
(1) gold, (2) blue, (3) red, (4) black
b)The chevron shall consist of a 2-inch wide band forming angle of 120 and shall be 15 inches in total breadth, as per the following sketch:
A chevron shall be affixed to each side of the mainsail, apex upward, back-to-back, so that only one is visible when viewing the sail in transmitted light. The chevron shall be centered 6 inches below the port side number.
c)Honor awards are to the skipper--not the boat--for his display on a Tanzer 16 that he may sail while a member in good standing in the Association. The skipper shall remove his chevron before selling or otherwise disposing of a sail no longer used by him.
d)Trophy committees may consider presentation of appropriate, chevrons to champions as part of trophy awards.
ARTICLE B-10: Activities of the Class Association
No part of the receipts of the Class Association shall accrue to the benefit of, or be distributed to, its members, officers, or committee chairpersons or other private persons, except that the Class Association shall be authorized and empowered to pay reasonable compensation for services rendered and to make payment and distributions in furtherance of the purposes of the Class Association. No substantial part of the activities of the Class Association shall be the carrying on for propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation, and the Class Association shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distribution of statements), any political campaign on behalf of any candidate for public office.
Not withstanding any other provision of these articles, the Class Association shall not carry on any activities not permitted to be carried on:
- By any organization exempt from Federal Income Tax under section 501 (e) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (or the corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue Law).
- By an organization, contributions to which arc deductible under section 170 (c) (2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (or the corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue Law).
ARTICLE B-11: Dissolution
- Voting: The Tanzer 16 Class Association may be dissolved or disbanded by a two- thirds vote of its members.
- Disposition: In the event the Tanzer 16 Class Association, Inc. should be dissolved or disbanded, or terminate its existence by vote or otherwise, the Executive Committee shall, after paying or making provisions for the payment of liabilities of the Class Association, dispose of all the assets of the Class Association exclusively for the purposes of the Class Association, or to such organization or organizations created and operated exclusively for charitable, educational, religious or other purposes as shall at that time qualify as an exempt organization or organizations under Section 501 (e) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (or the corresponding provisions of any future United States Internal Revenue Law), as the Executive Committee shall determine. Any such assets not so disposed of shall be disposed of by the Superior Court of the country in which the principal office of the organization is then located, exclusively for such purposes or to such organization or organizations, as the Court shall determine, which are organized and operated exclusively for such purposes.
Revised January 10, 1987
Article S-1: Purpose, One-Design Principle
- It is the purpose of these specifications to control modifications to Tanzer 16 sloops which compete in sanctioned events such that no boat will have an inherent speed advantage over any other.
- The Association recognizes that the Tanzer 16 is primarily manufactured as a daysailer, and equipped as such. In order to increase the satisfaction of Association members who race the Tanzer 16, certain modifications are allowed which make the boats more uniform and easier to handle in racing conditions.
- It is impossible to foresee every possible innovation. Hence, if a modification to the Tanzer 16 is not explicitly permitted by these specifications or by a ruling of the Chief Measurer, it is prohibited.
Article S-2: Official Plans
The official plans arc the property of Tanzer Industries (or their successors), and are provided for reference only. Those features of the Tanzer 16 which are regulated by the Association are described in this measurement by-law.
Article S-3: Hull and Appurtenances
- The Boat: shall be constructed of molded fiberglass by Tanzer Industries Limited (or their successors) or by a manufacturer formally licensed by them. Except for the following items, modifications to the hull and deck are not allowed:
a)Holes may be made in the hull and deck of the Tanzer 16 to mount allowed fittings. This includes holes to allow running rigging to pass through the deck.
b)The hull, deck and underwater fins of the Tanzer 16 may be painted at the owner's discretion, except that painting the hull or underwater fins with polymer type paint is prohibited. Waxing of the bull and deck may be carried out at the owner's discretion. Sanding or polishing of the hull or underwater fins is permitted.
c)Repairs which return the hull and deck to their originally manufactured condition are permitted.
d)Plywood hull and deck core material may be replaced with other materials, such as balsa or Airex foam, at the discretion of the owner.
e)Installation of safety equipment, such as flotation tanks, is at the owner's discretion. The Association recommends that older boats without bow flotation tanks should have such tanks installed.
f) Installation, of through-hull bailers and drains may be made at the owner's discretion.
g)A spinnaker launcher of any design may be installed through the deck.
- The Hull and Deck Weight: shall not be less than 425 pounds when stripped of all normally removable gear such as spars, sails, rudder, tiller and extension, standing rigging, running rigging, anchors, boom crutch, etc. If weight is below the minimum, the difference shall be made up by the addition of ballast permanently attached to the inside of the bull. Such ballast may be distributed along the keelson and centerboard trunk, but it must all be fixed in place by bonding with epoxy resin or some other permanent method.
- The Boat's Official Number: shall be in digits, minimum 1/2" high, marked on a card which shall be permanently affixed by molding and under clear polyester resin on the inner surface of the hull at the transom.
- The Centerboard: shall be of anodized aluminum plate, 5/16" thick, with a total weight of 20 pounds, plus or minus one pound. The outline of the centerboard shall conform to the official plans. Any surface finish is allowed, except polymer paint. Edges may be faired or finished at the owner's discretion. Method of hoisting centerboard is optional.
- The Rudder Blade: The rudder plate shall be of anodized aluminum, 3/16" thick. The outline of the rudder blade shall conform to the official plans. Any surface finish is allowed, except polymer paint. Edges may be faired or finished at the owner's discretion, as long as the shape of the rudder blade below the waterline satisfies the outline requirements.
- The Rudder Head, Tiller, and Hiking Stick: are optional in-design.
Article S-4: Spars, Riggings and Fittings
- The Mast: shall be of aluminum, of the dimensions shown in the official plans, with an integral sail luff track. It must be of the same cross section through- out its length. The weight of the mast, including mast fittings as shown in the official plans, and rigged with forestay, shrouds and halyards shall not be less than 31.5 pounds.
- The Boom: shall be of aluminum, of the dimensions shown in the official plans, with in integral sail foot track, and shall not weigh less than 8 1/2 pounds including boomvang, clew outhaul, and mainsheet blocks and the other fittings shown in the official plans. It shall be of the same cross section throughout its length.
- The Standing Rigging: shall conform as to position, number and length of stays with the official plans and shall not be expanded or contracted during racing. The shrouds shall be of stranded wire rope of 1/8" minimum diameter. The point of attachment of the shrouds and forestay to the mast shall be in accordance with the official plans.
- The Running Rigging: Running rigging is defined as being those devices which control the shape and position of the sails. Modifications or replacement of the original running rigging to include any of the following shall be PERMITTED:
a)Any type of locking devices for halyards 6 feet or lower above the heel of the mast.
b)Any type of external adjustable mainsail clew outhaul that does not use magic boxes, hyfield levers, or winches.
c)An adjustable mainsail traveler of any type, no longer than 48" wide and mounted on the deck at the stern. No mid-boom traveler or horse is permitted. At least one part of the mainsheet must connect the aft end of the boom to a horse, bridle, or traveler of any design aft of the cockpit, with the free end led to a block mounted on the aft end of the centerboard trunk.
d)Any type of mainsail cunningham or downhaul that does not use magic boxes or winches.
e)A boomvang of any type that does not use magic boxes or winches and the mainsheet are the only permitted devices used to induce spar bending and the flattening of the mainsail for heavy air.
f)Jib sheets must be lead from blocks or fairleads on a single 14" or shorter track on the deck and lead no further inboard than 2" from the edge of the cockpit. A moveable car on this track shall be the only permitted means for changing the sheeting position or angle of the headsail. Any configuration of jib sheet locking devices, jib sheet ratchets blocks or jib sheet winches is permitted.
g)Gooseneck Fitting: A sliding gooseneck is permitted. The level of the top edge of the boom when projected to the mast shall not be less than 4'2" from the heel of the mast as shown in the official plans.
h)The Spinnaker Pole: shall have a maximum length of 6'9" overall including fittings. Only one spinnaker pole is to be carried on board when racing. A whisker pole is permitted; maximum length shall be 7'9" overall including fittings. Either pole may be rigged while racing, but never both at the same time.
i)Miscellaneous Fittings and Hardware: As shown in the official plans are recommended, but are not mandatory.
- Miscellaneous Equipment: The following Miscellaneous equipment is PERMITTED at all sanctioned events:
a)Spinnaker launching chutes
b)Trap door (Elvstrom) bailers and transom flaps
c)Below deck spinnaker sheets and guys
d)Jiffy slab reefing
e)Any type of timing device
- Movable Ballast. No movable ballast other than the weight of the crew is allowed. Hiking straps of any design which restrain the weight of the crew at the ankles are allowed. No hiking aids which restrain the weight of the crew above the ankles, such as trapezes, hiking boards, or Soling type harnesses, are permitted.
Article S-5-. Grandfather Clause
Boats equipped with original equipment shall be deemed to satisfy this specification, with the exception that the minimum hull weight requirement must be satisfied.
Article S-6: Racing Safety Equipment
The following safety equipment must be carried when racing:
- An anchor of any approved design with a minimum of 50' of attached line.
- One wearable type 1, 11, or III personal flotation device for each person on board.
- One throwable type IV flotation device.
- One paddle.
- One bucket suitable for bailing.
Article S-7: Sails
- The object of this article is to insure that no boat shall have an undue ad vantage over any other through material or size of sails. Sails which, in the opinion of the Chief Measurer, are made such that they violate the intent of this rule, even though they satisfy the letter of the rule, are not allowed.
- Sails are to be marked by a measurer authorized by the Chief Measurer to say that it has passed his inspection. It is within the authority of race committees of events sanctioned by the Association to allow only such sails to be used in that event, although such requirement must be clearly stated in the regatta notice.
- New sails may not be purchased more than once every two years unless specifically authorized by the Chief Measurer in writing, and then only for the reason that the sail to be replaced has been destroyed or rendered unusable.
- Sails must be constructed from woven material only.
- All sails must be capable of being lowered when underway.
- Windows in sails arc allowed at the discretion of the owner.
- All sails shall be measured in a dry state and laid on the floor with tension adequate to remove wrinkles along the dimension being measured.
- Mainsail cloth weight shall be a minimum of 3 ounces per square yard and maximum of 7 ounces per square yard, both weights based on a linear yard 36" in width.
- The class insignia, which is a winged "C" as indicated on the sail of the official plans, shall be at least 12" high and shall be placed on both sides of the mainsail. Underneath it shall be placed the official number of the boat in Arabic numerals, at least 12" high, in accordance with IYRU rules.
- There shall be four battens in the mainsail leech, of which the top one shall be no more than 18" long, and the rest no more than 24" long. All battens shall be straight and the maximum width shall be 1 5/8". The battens shall be placed so as to divide the unreefed leech into approximately equal sections.
- Mainsails shall have an attached bolt rope in the foot and the luff, which shall be slid into the integral track in the mast and boom.
- Measurement of the full luff and the foot shall be taken with 25 pounds of tension applied to the edge being measured, in order to stretch the bolt rope.
- The top edge of the headboard shall not exceed 4 1/2" in length (fore and aft), measured square to the mast.
- The top measuring point of the luff and the leech of the mainsail shall be respectively at the uppermost luff and leech corner of the headboard. Other points of measurement shall be taken at the intersection of the extended lines of the extreme edges of the sails, including bolt ropes or tapes.
- 1/2, 3/4, and 1/4 points of the leech and luff shall be determined by folding the sail onto itself at the leech and luff using the measuring points stated above.
- Mainsails shall comply with the following dimensions:
Length of Luff 19' 3" 19' 1"
Length of Leech 21' 6" 21' 4"
Length of Foot 9' 4 1/2" 9' 2 1/2"
Width @ 3/4 Height 3' 4 1/2" 3' 1 1/2"
Width @ 1/2 Height 69' 0" 5' 7"
Width @ 1/4 Height 8' 1 1/2" 7' 1 0"
- Headsail Cloth Weight: shall be a minimum of 3 ounces per square yard, and a maximum of 7 ounces per square yard, both weights being based on a linear yard of 36" in width.
- Headsails are to be triangular in shape.
- The leech of all headsails must be straight line or a concave curve (no roach is allowed). A single batten, up to 12" long, is PERMITTED in headsails.
- The maximum round to the foot, measured from the straight line joining the center of the tack and clew eyes, shall not exceed 3 ½". If either eye is outside the sail, the straight line shall be taken from the corner of the sail at that point.
- Headsails shall be attached to the luff wire at the head and tack. Headsail cunninghams installed by the sailmaker on the headsail shall be permitted as long as they are not designed to be adjusted while racing.
- The tack of the headsail when hoisted shall not be more than 2 inches from the deck.
- The points of measurement shall be taken at the intersection of the extended lines of the extreme edges of the sail, not including hoisting pendants, external cringles, etc.
- JIBS shall comply with the following dimensions:
Length of Luff 14' 8" 14' 5"
Length of Leech 12' 1" 11' 10"
Length of Foot 5' 11" 5' 8"
- GENOAS shall comply with the following dimensions:
Length of Luff 16' 1" 15' 10"
Length of Leech 15' 4" 15' 1"
Length of Foot 7' 3 1/2" 7' 0 1/2"
- Spinnaker cloth weight shall be a minimum of 1/2 ounce per square yard (based on a linear yard of 36" in width), and a maximum of 1 1/2 ounces per square yard.
- Spinnakers shall be symmetrical when folded about a line joining the head to the center of the foot. This fold shall be know as the centerfold. The sail shall be substantially flat when folded about this line and laid on the floor. Measurements which involve the centerfold line shall be made with the sail folded and laid on the floor in this manner.
- Luff and foot measurements shall be made with sufficient tension applied to the edge being measured to remove all wrinkles along that edge.
- For measurements between corners, measurement points shall be taken at the intersection of the extended lines of the extreme edges of the sail at the point being measured.
- The upper girth shall be measured between points on the extreme edge of the luff 8' below the intersection or the extended lines of the extreme edges of the luff and centerfold lines.
- The maximum girth shall be taken at the greatest distance between any two points on the extreme edges of the luffs of the sail which are equidistant from the intersection of the luff and the foot.
- Spinnakers shall comply with the following dimensions:
Length of Luff 17' 3"
Length of Foot 13' 0"
Length of long diagonal 19' 0"
Upper girth 13' 0"
Maximum girth 14' 0"
Article S-8: Sail Measurement Diagrams
The diagrams are included to aid in the measurement of sails. If a discrepancy or ambiguity exists between the written specifications in Article S-7 and a diagram contained herein, the written specification in Article S-7 shall prevail.
METHOD OF MEASURING MAINSAILS
METHOD OF MEASURING SPINNIKERS
Chief Measurer's Rulings
The Chief Measurer's rulings are included in this handbook for purposes of showing historical continuity only, since their intent has been incorporated into the current Specifications (January 10, 1987). Note that Specification S-1.3 allows no modifications to Tanzer 16s that are not permitted by the Specifications, or by a ruling of the Chief Measurer.
- Below Deck Halyard Cleats. Below dock halyard cleats are allowed as an optional convenience item. (May 1972)
- Cunningham Holes.Cunningham holes are acceptable in Tanzer 16 sails. The basis for the ruling is that there is no prohibition of such holes anywhere in the specifications and that, in principle, they allow the same kind of adjustment as that which can be made by a downhaul, an already accepted device in the Tanzer 16 specifications. Since the Tanzer 16 does not use black bands, the only restriction on boom setting is that the level at the top edge of the boom when projected to the mast shall not be less than 4'2" from the heel of the mast. (August 1972)
- Spinnaker Launching Chutes. Spinnaker launching chutes are acceptable on Tanzer 16 yachts, there being nothing in the class specifications to restrict their use. However, the Class Measurer feels it is not wise to cut holes in the Tanzer 16 deck and recommends that if launching chutes are used they be closable to prevent seas breaking over the bow from swamping the boat. (August 1972)
- Trap Door (Elvstrom) Bailers and Transom Flaps. Trap door bailers and transom flaps are permitted on the Tanzer 16. They are not specifically disallowed by anything in the Tanzer 16 specifications. Again the measurer recommends avoiding cutting holes in the hull or deck of the Tanzer 16. (August 1972)
- Below Deck Spinnaker Sheets and Guys. It is permissible to run spinnaker sheets or guys under the decking of a Tanzer 16, there being nothing in the specification restricting the running rigging for a spinnaker. Again, the Class Measurer does not recommend cutting holes in the docks of the Tanzer 16. (January 1973)
- Alternate Positions of the Main Sheet Blocks. No alteration in the position of the main sheet tackle blocks will be allowed. Specifications state that the main sheet tackle blocks must be affixed to the boom in accordance with the official plans. The official plans show one block fixed to a bail 5'6" from the forward end of the boom, the other fixed from a stainless steel strap at the end of a 9'9" boom. The only alteration in block position allowed is dropping of the center block when the sail is roller reefed. Other blocks attached to bails anywhere else would interfere with the requirement that the boom shall be capable of being roller reefed. (January 1973)
- Jib Block Height Adjusters (Schreck Hauler). Such devices are not allowed since their effect is essentially identical to Barber haulers which are specifically prohibited. (January 1973)
- Jib Tack Adjusters. Jib tacked to adjustable through dock tension device is not allowed because jib stay tension equalizers are not allowed and the tack of a headsail shall not be more than 2 inches from the deck. (February 1974)
- Halyards. Hanging devices for jib halyard or main halyard wires are not allowed because halyard locks are specifically- prohibited and no locking device aloft for halyards is permitted. (February 1974)
- Slab Reefing. Slab reefing of the mainsail is allowed provided the rig does not interfere with the ability to roller reef the sail as required by class specifications. In addition, the slab reefing controls must not be rigged in such a way that they can be used as leech line controls, which are specifically prohibited by Article S-6. (March 1975)
- Mainsail Measuring Instructions. Mainsail width at 3/4, 1/2, and 1/4 height is determined as stated in S-4-7, according to international sail measurement instructions by determining separately the 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 point on the leech by folding each separately. “Cross-Measurements”-- these shall be determined as follows: the mid-point of the luff shall be determined by folding the sail upon itself with the highest point of the headboard (1) nearest the luff even with the lowest edge of the bolt rope nearest the tack. (2) The mid-point of the leech shall be determined with the highest point of the headboard nearest the luff even with the lowest point of the sail directly under the center of the clew cringle. (3) The cross measurement shall be the distance between the mid-point of the luff and leech. The bolt rope shall be included." Quarterway (and 3/4-way) cross measurements shall be determined in a similar way by folding a second time. (February 1974)
- Mast Blocks. Blocks inserted between the mast and the mast opening in the deck are strictly prohibited, as they can function as spar bending devices, which arc specifically prohibited by Article S-6. (March 1975)
- Placement of Jib Sheet Track and Block. No placement of the jib track and block, or any other block, shall be so positioned that trimming of the jib sheets can be made at an angle further inboard than that of the angle from the jib clew to the track block as placed by the manufacturer. (August 1978)
- Headsail Cunninghams. Headsail cunninghams which are designed to be unadjustable while racing and whose primary purpose is to prolong sail life are permitted. (August 1986)
Prototype Fleet Constitution
Article 1: Name
The fleet shall be called Tanzer 16 Fleet Number and shall hereafter be referred to herein as the Fleet.
Article 2: Headquarters
Fleet headquarters shall be located.
Article 3: Objectives
The objectives of the fleet shall be to encourage and promote on and off the water activities for Tanzer 16 owners, promote Tanzer 16 class racing under uniform rules, and to actively encourage new sailors to improve their sailing and racing knowledge.
Article 4: Policy
The Fleet shall cooperate with other yachting organizations and insist upon strict observance of the Tanzer 16 class rules.
Article 5: Jurisdiction
- The Fleet Constitution and By-laws shall be binding on its members and shall not conflict with those of the Tanzer 16 Class Association. The Tanzer 16 Class Association Rules shall take precedence.
- Territorial jurisdiction: (if desired).
Article 6: Dues, Fees, and Assessments (if desired)
Dues may be levied by the Board of Directors and shall be due and payable annually. Dues must be paid in order for a member to be in good standing.
Article 7: Membership Classification
- An Attached Member shall have the privileges of voting and holding office in the fleet. He may command a Tanzer 16 in a Fleet Sanctioned Event in accordance with the Rules. He must be an owner or substantial part-owner of a Tanzer 16 and an amateur sailor. Only one part-owner may have voting rights and he shall be designated the senior co-owner. Either owner may hold office whereupon he shall have the voting right of the senior co-owner.
- An Associate Member is an amateur and joint owner, member of the immediate family of an owner, or involved as a part of the crew of a specific Tanzer 16. He may not hold office, vote, or represent the Fleet. He shall receive Fleet communications as a member and may attend all activities as a member for which he pays dues, fees, and assessments.
- All membership applications shall be approved by the Board of Directors.
- Members may resign upon notifying the Fleet Captain and satisfying any obligations to the Fleet. Classifications shall change automatically due to failure to meet at any time the above requirements.
- Fleet Membership is required in all Fleet Sanctioned Events.
Article 8: Fleet Government
- The government of the Fleet shall be vested in the duly elected Board of Directors which shall establish Fleet policy.
- The Executive Officers shall constitute the Executive Committee and shall consist of:
- a)The Fleet Captain shall be the chief executive officer of the Fleet. He shall serve as Chairman of the Executive Committee and Chairman of the Board of Directors. He shall vote only to break a tie vote. His general duties shall include: calling meetings, presiding, representing the Fleet, ruling on procedure and jurisdiction, summarizing decisions, appointing committees, authorizing disbursements, settling disputes and rules violations, and serving as ex officio member of all committees except the Nominating Committee.
- b)The Fleet Measurer shall assume the duties of the (if the Fleet Captain in his absence temporarily, or permanently in his vacancy of the office. He shall serve as Chairman of the Measurement committee. He shall advise on matters pertaining to boat construction, sails, rigging, fittings, and equipment of the class sloop. He shall be responsible for communications with the Class Measurer and be aware of specification or measurement changes.
- c)The Fleet Secretary-Treasurer shall preserve and maintain paper, letters, and correspondence of the Fleet sanctioned events. He shall take the minutes of all meetings, maintain an up-to-date roster, collect, record, and disburse all fleet funds as directed by the Fleet Captain.
- d)The Fleet Scorekeeper shall supervise the collecting and (if desired) analyzing of fleet racing results for all Fleet sanctioned events. He shall maintain records and furnish results to the Fleet Editor for prompt publication.
- The officers shall serve a term of one year or until replaced by duly elected officers.
- Board of Directors and Committees:
- a)The Board of Directors shall consist of the elected officers of the Fleet plus additional directors elected by the Fleet not to exceed seven and shall be an odd numbered total decided by the Fleet. The Board shall meet as directed by the Fleet Captain. They shall act on membership applications. They shall report their activities and decisions to the Fleet promptly. They shall serve as an appeals board to which all decisions by the officers may be referred.
- b)The Fleet Captain shall appoint a member to fill any vacancy on the Board which may occur. Each Director shall serve a one-year term, but may serve any number of elected consecutive terms as a Director. The immediate past Fleet Captain shall serve as an ex‑officio
Article 9: Meetings
- Fleet Meetings may be called by the Fleet Captain on two weeks' notice to the Fleet. The meetings shall be held at a time and place which is reasonable accessible and convenient to the majority of members.
- An Annual Meeting shall be held prior to December 31. One month's notice shall be given the Fleet, if possible. Business at the Annual Meeting shall include: election of new officers and directors, amendments of the Constitution, and the presentation of the Annual Report from the Fleet Captain.
Article 10: Roll Call and Quorums
- One-half the members of the Board of Directors shall constitute a quorum for a Board Meeting.
- One-third of the fleet members shall constitute a quorum for Fleet Business Meeting.
Article 11: Nominations and Elections
- The Executive Officers and Directors shall be elected at the Annual Meeting to serve from January 1 through December 31. Any vacancy shall be filled by appointment by, the Fleet Captain to complete the term.
- To be eligible each candidate must indicate his willingness and capacity to serve a complete term, or remainder.
- A Nominating Committee appointed by the Fleet Captain shall present their nominations at the Annual Meeting. Nominations shall also be received from the floor. If there are more than two candidates for an office, successive votes shall be conducted until one receives a majority of the votes. No proxy voting shall be allowed
Article 12: Voting
- The manner of balloting shall be decided by the Fleet Captain.
Article 13: Suspensions, Expulsions, and Impeachments
- Any member whose dues are in arrears for a year shall be automatically expelled from the Fleet and he shall not be reinstated except by reapplying and satisfying old obligations.
- Any member may be suspended or expelled for good cause at any time by action of the Board of Directors.
- Any suspended member shall be reinstated at the end of the suspension period set by the Board of Directors upon payment of the current year's dues and any unpaid back obligations to the Fleet.
Article 13: Amendments
- The Constitution and By-Laws may never be suspended except upon dissolution of the Fleet.
- The Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds majority vote at the Annual Meeting.
- The By-Laws may be amended by a two-third-majority vote of those present at a meeting of the Board of Directors.
- Amendments passed shall take effect immediately unless otherwise stipulated in the amendments.
Article 14: Dissolution
- The Fleet may be dissolved by a two-thirds vote of the members present at an Annual Meeting, or a two-thirds vote of the entire Fleet at any time, or automatically should the membership drop below three boats.
- Obligations shall be settled and any balance in the treasury divided equitably among the members in good standing of record.
Article 15: Fleet Champion
The Fleet Champion shall be determined by the outcome of the Season Series.
Prototype Fleet By-Laws
Article 1: Dues
- Dues shall be due and payable annually before and applicable to all classes of memberships. Non-payment after shall render the member delinquent. Reinstatement of Delinquent Members may be made upon paying all back dues and obligations plus a penalty fee in the amount of $5.00. No refunds shall be made to retiring members. New members joining after September lst may be charged dues on a monthly pro rata basis for the balance of the calendar year.
- A Delinquent Member shall not be eligible to participate or be recognized unless his dues are paid in full. Eligibility shall not be retroactive upon payment. All right and privileges arc suspended automatically until payment is made.
- Dues shall be used only for the general benefit of the entire fleet membership in good standing so that each member benefits equally as possible. Dues may be spent on such items as: Fleet Sanctioned Events, Newsletters, Yearbooks, Rosters, Invitations, Notices, Correspondence, Stamps, Stationery, and General Fleet Business.
Article 2: Fleet Sanctioned Events
- Fleet Sanctioned Events shall be determined by the Board of Directors each year and they shall encourage participation as a class in them. Consideration shall be given to travel time and distance and the wishes of the Fleet.
- Participation in any sanctioned event shall be the option and sole responsibility of each member and shall be at his own risk.
- The latest edition of the U.S.Y.R.U. Yacht Racing Rules shall govern all Fleet Sanctioned Races and all informal races. Decisions shall be made in the spirit and intent of the rules with consideration of past precedents when applicable.
- All Fleet sanctioned events should be sailed according to the Tanzer 16 Class Association by-laws and specifications with the sole exception that under Article 7, 4 and 5, changes in qualified skipper and/or crew will be allowed in a series extending over more than three days.
- The Fleet champion may display a Black Chevron below the sail number of the mainsail on each side as shown on the official plans. One chevron per championship won, but not to exceed four, may be displayed. The chevrons are the property of the winner and shall be removed prior to disposing of the sails.
Article 3: Guest and New Member Policy
- A Guest may be invited to race his class sloop in one Fleet sanctioned regatta; therefore, he shall apply for membership and may not participate further until his application has been approved by the Board of Directors. All Guest must be sponsored by a Member.
- The Fleet Captain shall develop a system of processing applications in conformance with Constitution and By-Laws to be approved by the Board of Directors.
Article 4: Fiscal Policy
- The Fleet shall not be liable for any debts contracted by its members or officers other than legitimate and lawful expenses authorized by the Constitution and By- Laws.
A number of Tanzer 16 sailors have adopted an "insurance" rigging method which provides a safety line on the transom for those rare times when the boat turtles and your centerboard is not accessible (see Centerboard Preventer article in this manual). This line not only provides a way to get onto the upturned bottom, but also gives something to hold on to while waiting for assistance.
The safety line is usually polypropylene but can be any strong line you happen to have. It is fastened to two Lifting Rings, (available as Schaefer 78-21, 1-5/8" inside diameter) attached high up on the transom, preferable bolted through a backing plate.
Incidentally, don't forget that the boat floats high enough when turtled that you can depend on air underneath and go under to push the centerboard up while the other crew is on the boat, ready to grab it. Once the board is all the way out, it only takes one person to bring the boat at least half way, by which time both of you can get on the board to right the boat the rest of the way.
Yacht Racing Right-of-Way Rules In Brief
Simplified, Condensed, and Unofficial
Below are the basic yacht racing right-of-way rules in simple, brief form. They are intended as an aid to newcomers to the sport and not as a substitute for the official rules. All racers should have their own copy of the official Yacht Racing Rules.
PORT-STARBOARD. When yachts are on opposite tacks (booms are on different sides), port tack (yacht with boom on the starboard side) keeps clear. See rule 36.
WINDWARD-LEEWARD. When yachts are on the same tack (booms on the same sides), the windward yacht keeps clear, or the yacht astern keeps clear. See rule 37.
CHANGING TACK. When you are tacking or jibing, keep clear of other yachts. After you tack or jibe and you suddenly get right-of-way, give the other yacht room and time to keep clear. See rule 41.
LUFFING BEFORE STARTING. Before you start you may luff a yacht to windward, but you must do it slowly. See rule 40.
BARGING. At the start, don't "barge". That means don't try to squeeze between a yacht close to leeward of you and a starting line mark (which probably is a race committee boat). See rule 42.4.
OVER EARLY. If you are over the line early at the start, keep clear of all yachts that started properly as you return to restart. See rule 44.
BUOY ROOM. When you are two boat lengths from the turning mark, an obstruction, or a finish line mark (which may be a race committee boat), give room to all yachts that have an inside overlap on you. See rule 42.
LUFFING AFTER STARTING. When another boat tries to pass you to windward, you may luff her until her skipper hails "mast abeam" (means her skipper is even with or ahead of your mast). Then you must stop luffing and bear off to your proper course. See rule 38.
TOUCHING A MARK. If you touch a mark, you may continue racing only after completely circling the mark. If you touch a starting line mark, you must wait until after you have started to circle it. While thus circling a mark, keep clear of other yachts. See rules 52 and 45.
RULE INFRINGEMENT. If you infringe a rule while racing (you are racing from your preparatory signal until you clear the finish line), you are obligated to retire promptly. Sometimes the sailing instructions permit an alternative penalty such as the "720 Rule" or a percentage scoring penalty. See rule 33 and Appendix 3. Even when you have right-of-way it is your duty to avoid collisions. See rule 32.
Common Race Committee Signals
Below are the signals used most often by the race committee. For others, see rule 4 of the Yacht Racing Rules and refer to your event's Sailing Instructions. The Sailing Instructions are provided by the regatta or race organizers and include entry requirements, racing schedule, courses and other details.
SHAPE OR FLAG SOUND SIGNAL MEANS...
White 1 Warning 10 minutes to start
Blue 1 Preparatory 5 minutes to start
Red 1 Start Go!
Blue/Yellow 2 General Recall The fleet that just started
is called back for a new start
Red/White 2 Postponement The start of the race is delayed
- Time is taken from the visual signal, not the sound signal.
- Signals (flags or shapes) are lowered one minute before the next signal
The official book of Yacht Racing Rules is available from the United States Yacht Racing Union (USYRU). USYRU is the national organization of racing sailors. For information on USYRU member services, publications, or how to join, write:
United States Yacht Racing Union
P.O. Box 209
Newport, R.I. 02840
To Race or Not To Race, Is That the Question?
by Ken Whitt (T-534)
Having had only about a half dozen previous sailing outings on a motley collection of rental and friend's boats, I purchased my Tanzer 16 for the exclusive purpose of leisurely day sailing with my family and friends. While convinced by the large cockpit, beamy stability, sturdy construction, and moderate cost of the Tanzer's sloop rigged design, I just happened to purchase a boat with a racing heritage (and a flashy purple and white striped spinnaker). Perhaps I should not have been so surprised when Dave Permar called to invite me to the North Carolina 1983 Governor's Cup Regatta. Naturally, I protested that I wasn't yet knowledgeable enough about sailing and had never even seen a race. Although Dave insisted that he had raced his boat the first time he put it in the water, I declined to participate. I reasoned that he probably was born into a sailing family, the Tanzer was his third or fourth boat, no sane person would race having as little experience as I had, and so on. But the seed had been sown. Later that year when I inquired more about sailboat racing and the Carolina Sailing Club, Dave invited me to come as a guest and I accepted. Again, Dave's parting words were that racing is an excellent way to learn to sail Still uncertain about this seemingly risky business, I first checked to see if my insurance covered racing mishaps. With visions of launching without installing the plug, I typed out a checklist which would guide me in rigging without undo delay and embarrassment in front of seasoned skippers. I included a cryptic summary of the three right of way rules which I was told would get me by without incident-- boat under sail, starboard-port tack, leeward-windward boat. I didn't understand the clear ahead/astern and mark rounding rules at all, but it didn't matter since I was to remain clear astern of all boats that day.
When I arrived at Henderson Point, Dave and several other skippers sketched out the expected course, starting line, and mark positions in the sand. Thankfully, the course was two triangles since a modified Olympic course still seemed foreign to me. Robert Macklen further helped allay my anxieties by tying a green ribbon to my boom which identified me as a beginner (and I presumed, warned other boats to stay clear). As I launched, I was comforted by his invitation to follow him around the course, but I was wishing he would "wait up" long before I finally reached the starting line. ("Just don't get ahead of me," he admonished-- 'wisdom' he has helped me heed in many subsequent races.) It was easy enough to follow the pack once the starting gun had been fired, no matter how hard we tried to do otherwise. We finished in last place by a boat length in the first race, and, proudly, next to last in the day's second event. I was hooked!
With three years now (1985) under my belt, I look back and realize that what Dave said was true. Racing is an excellent way to learn to sail. Feedback on seamanship, sail handling, and balance comes immediately from comparing boat speed with other Tanzers. But more important are the friendly people who are willing to help each new sailor attain the most from his or her Tanzer. While no one offers suggestions for improving your sail trim as you race side by side up the windward leg, the members of Fleet 1 have offered encouragement, thoughtful discussion of tuning and rigging changes I might consider, guidance about rules, reading suggestions, and a warm camaraderie which makes racing a pleasant challenge rather than a competitive struggle. Given this attitude, it is not surprising to find many families sailing in regattas either as skipper and crew or on separate boats. I also find racing to be an engaging and welcome respite from stresses which might otherwise claim my attention. While my wife, Marlene, does not share my enthusiasm, our day sailing adventures also benefit from the confidence I gain during racing. As one novice who spent many adult years dreaming about owning a sailboat, I can imagine few more efficient or enjoyable ways to acquire sailing skills than by rubbing elbows (and occasionally gunwales) with experienced sailors out on the course
Rigging Tips: The Centerboard Preventer
By Pete Thorn (T-1427)
One day while crewing for ace Lightning skipper Tom Hudgns, I saw on his boat a safety device that really seemed to make a lot of sense: a down and dirty centerboard preventer. This device could probably be used on many small centerboard sailboats, but most especially the Tanzer 16!
Sailors who have never fully capsized (otherwise known as "turning turtle") probably won't have much appreciation for centerboard preventers. (For a more complete description of capsizes, refer to Dave Permar's article in this manual.) The elegant simplicity and incomparable value of this inexpensive bit of rigging is best appreciated by the "fully capsized" sailor sitting on the bottom of his turtled boat, contemplating the thin flat plate centerboard held securely by gravity beyond the sailor's grasp.
A centerboard preventer will "prevent" the board from sliding all the way back into the slot so you can grab it, pull it out to climb on and right the boat. Sailors of the most humble mechanical ability can easily install in this elegant device. The Lightning style preventer (found on Tom Hudgens Lightning and brilliantly copied by the author) costs less than $5 and takes less than 5 minutes to install.
Just get a piece of 1/4" line about two feet long and a drill to drill two holes through the centerboard trunk cap suitable to pass the line through. The holes should be drilled between the 1st and 2nd forward screw pairs holding the teak wood cap on the trunk. Tie a knot in one end and reeve the line up through the bottom of one hole, around the forward end of the centerboard and down in the other hole. When you are underway, snug the line and tie a slip knot in the loose end. Now the board can't go all the way back in the trunk and will be there sticking out at least a little when you need to grab it. (Just remember when beaching the boat to pull the slipknot and loosen the preventer).
I can't agree with Dave Permar more, "Safe sailing is good sailing!"
Rigging Tips: The Howe Traveler
An emergence among Fleet I sailors is a simplified adjustable traveler that replaces the non-adjustable traveler supplied with the standard Tanzer 16 by the factory. It has the advantages of being self-tacking, reasonably inexpensive, relatively easy to install and easy to use. Weldon Howe, formerly a Y-Flyer skipper from the midwest, skipper of T-901, Fleet 1 member and a Carolina Sailing Club Commodore, and currently a resident of Oriental, North Carolina (often the location of many district and national events), deserves full credit for the development of this type traveler for use on the Tanzer 16. Now that you know about the namesake of the "Howe Traveler", here's how it works:
The very simple concept of the Howe Traveler (or any traveler, for that matter) is that it allows the mainsheet to tighten the leech of the main with the boom positioned off-center of the boat varying amounts for varying wind conditions. This is very advantageous in dealing with heavy air, and permits adjustment of the angle of attack of the sail without allowing the main to become full and overpowered. In heavy air the main should be flattened to take out the draft reducing the overturning moment, with the boom positioned to leeward. This is easy for the skipper to accomplish while at the helm in heavy air with the one-line, in/out control of the Howe Traveler. Loosening the setting allows for a wide sheeting angle (heavy air) and tightening the setting allows for a closer sheeting angle (moderate to lighter air). Tacking is no problem. Once the desired boom position is set, the traveler will automatically come to that same position on the other tack with no further adjustment required after a tack.
Installation is easy with only minimum modifications required to the boat. Recommended materials for the job, are:
2 Harken through-deck blocks
1 deck-mounted fairlead eye
1 cam cleat
12 feet 3/8" low-stretch line
As shown in the diagrams, the through-deck blocks should be located on the deck at the transom in line with the traveler bar, and 4"-6" away from the rails. If you do not have through-deck spinnaker sheet blocks, be sure to leave enough room for their future addition. Drill a 1/2" pilot hole after the blocks are laid out on the deck and cut the rectangular opening with a saber saw. The edges may need to be smoothed with a wood rasp to ensure a snug fit of the block in the hole. The blocks should be secured with wood screws or through-bolted. To install the fairlead eye and earn cleat it is necessary to glue and/or screw 5/8" plywood mounting blocks about 3" x 3" to the underside of the rear deck with epoxy and wood screws. These mounting blocks are needed to establish proper clearance beneath the deck and provide proper alignment for the traveler sheet to pass through the hole in the bulkhead into the cockpit. Position the mounting blocks as shown, and install the fairlead eye and cam cleat with wood screws. The hole in the bulkhead should be cut the same way as in the deck. Before installation, be sure to fit up all the pieces in a dry run to ensure proper clearances and alignment. Getting into the lazarette compartment is a trick, but using boat cushions over the opening helps case the uncomfortable aspects of the job.
More Rigging Tips
Whether you race or simply want top cruising performance from your Tanzer 16, there are several pieces of equipment which will improve your boat's performance.
The headsail of the Tanzer 16 can greatly determine windward performance. Therefore, a genoa can make a very significant improvement in the boat's handling characteristics and acceleration.
When sailing the Tanzer 16 in heavy air, the jib or genoa can be difficult to trim. The job of trimming the jib can be greatly eased with hexarachet assists on the jib sheets. These can be mounted behind the splashrail on each side of the mast or just behind the jib track as shown in the drawing.
Also, in heavy air you will need to hike out .is much as possible. This can be enhanced by adding hiking straps for both the skipper and crew. Hiking straps can free up hands for trimming and steering and also help you use your weight more efficiently.
Mainsail shape can be controlled with a downhaul and an outhaul. This allows you to adjust for optimum mainsail trim on all points of sail. They can be invaluable for depowering the sail quickly in heavy air.
For the utmost in downwind performance, we strongly recommend a spinnaker. One method of rigging is described in the drawing. The topping lift for the pole is actually often rope, rather than shockchord, and a downhaul is only needed in heavy air. The halyard and topping lift can be cleated under the thwart so the skipper can handle the lines while the crew sets the sail. The sheets may be run above, is shown, or below deck (which decreases the gear the crew sits on). A launcher can also speed up, and simplify, spinnaker sets and take-downs.
Suggested Running Rigging Line
Mainsheet 7/16" dacron 40'
Jibsheets 3/8" dacron 40'
Spinnaker halyard (continuous) 3/16" dacron 70'
Spinnaker guy/sheet (each) 3/16" dacron 40'
Spinnaker topping lift 3/16" dacron 25'
Spinnaker launchers have been installed in a number of Tanzer 16s. A spinnaker launcher consists of a molded fiberglass chute and a cloth tube. The increased case to set and douse the relatively large Tanzer 16 spinnaker makes a spinnaker launcher a very desirable feature for racing skippers. The following description is intended for class members who may not have the opportunity to observe installed spinnaker launchers in boats and who may want to attempt their own installation.
It is advisable to obtain a launching chute from the manufacturer. Until the new builder is in production of boat parts, the best source for Tanzer 16 parts of all types (including launching chutes) is: Eric Spenser, Canadian Yachting Services, Box 1045, Pt. Claire, Que. - H9S 4H9 (514-697-6952).
To install the chute, position it on the port side of the deck as far forward as the top side and center support below deck will allow. We suggest you make a cardboard template from the chute. Position the template on the deck and use a light from below to verify its location. Remember-- measure twice, cut once! After the hole is cut, sand down the deck surface at the lip around the hole and wipe with acetone to assure good adhesion. Mask the surrounding area before sanding to prevent damage to the rest of the deck. If you are attempting this installation as a winter project, take heed that adequate temperature is required for the epoxy resin to set up, so you should consider having heat lamps ready if maintaining temperature is a problem.
The state-of-the-art material currently used to glue the chute to the deck is PC-7 brand epoxy resin. It mixes to a heavy paste that has tremendous holding power. It is wise to drill a few small holes in the lip of the deck to let the epoxy resin squeeze through for extra holding power.
Since the lip may not lie flat all the way around, be ready to apply weight via 2x4's weighed down with bricks or concrete blocks. After the resin is completely set, scrape off excess resin and fair the edges to the deck.
The cloth tube is tricky to make and is described in the diagram. Attach it to the chute with three stainless steel strap/screw pipe clamps joined together.
The spinnaker should have a retrieval patch mounted on its downwind side.
The most common Tanzer rig uses a continuous halyard and retrieval line. When you pull the sail up, the retrieval line automatically pays out, and when dousing the halyard is automatically pulled in. There are many options for creating arrangements. In fact, no two Tanzers are rigged exactly alike. Generally, the retrieval line runs aft of the centerboard trunk from the cloth tube on the port side, turns forward to the starboard side, and is cleated either on the centerboard trunk or under the thwart before turning up a block at the base of the mast as it becomes the spinnaker halyard. Decisions pertaining to the exact layout of the spinnaker rigging are subject to the specific inclinations for handling, comfort and convenience of each individual skipper and crew. Good luck!
SPINNAKER HALYARD AND TOPPING LIFT
Punky’s Launcher Bag Formula
SPINNAKERS: Flying The Chute (Another View of Spinnakers)
By Dave Permar (T-165)
I think some Tanzer skippers go a little too far in touting the virtues of the spinnaker. This talk can be misleading to inexperienced sailors. Some points which I think should be made arc as follows:
- Most sailboat races arc won beating to windward. Despite the best efforts of such renowned spinnaker users as Dave Gilbert, Jim Strickland, and Jess Coburn, I have never seen a Tanzer beat to windward with a spinnaker up.
- Spinnakers can only improve performance when the wind is between five and fifteen knots. If the wind is less than that, you are better off concentrating on weight distribution and sitting still in the boat. If the wind is more than that, the boat is overpowered with the spinnaker up.
- Most of the spinnaker work is done by the crew and in order to fly the spinnaker in a race, the crew must be at least as skilled, and "gung-ho" as the skipper.
- The spinnaker makes only a marginal difference unless the use of the spinnaker makes planing possible when planing could not be accomplished without the spinnaker.
- The marginal improvement that a spinnaker allows over a non-spinnaker boat frequently is lost during setup and take down, especially if the setup or take down is less than perfect.
I am not particularly enamored with the spinnaker, especially for racing. I consider it to be more suitable for leisurely cruising. Moreover, I think it is important for beginning Tanzer 16 racers to know that a spinnaker is not necessary to win. Curt Elmer, one of the founders of the Class Association, never owned a spinnaker and yet he was Tanzer 16 Fleet Champion with the Carolina Sailing Club on more than one occasion. I believe a new sailor should concentrate on windward performance and not start thinking about using a spinnaker until he can consistently round the windward mark with the top third of the fleet.
Tuning Your Tanzer for LIGHT AIR
By Jim Chastain (T-420)
During the summer, when those slow moving high pressure cells move across the country from the southwest, there is a general expectation that we can save our heavy and moderate air sailing techniques for the afternoon sea breeze or the isolated thunderstorm. The good all around sailor must change gears and shift from exultation into patience; light air sailing can be fun if you work at it, or frustrating if you don't. For the Tanzer 16 light air can be considered 6 knots down to zero.
Preparation again is the key. For light air sailing your rig must be set up to take full advantage of every small breeze that happens by, and in the lulls you must concentrate on keeping the boat aimed and moving in the proper direction. When stepping the mast position it completely out of the deck slot. This will open up the slot between the jib and mainsail and provide maximum efficiency and performance for the low velocity conditions. Don't over tighten the shrouds and forestay; run a loose rig. There is no need to use a downhaul or Cunningham, and the outhaul on the mainsail should be rigged but fairly slack. You want the main to have as much draft as possible; a few wrinkles on the luff and foot of the sail are acceptable. Maintain approximately the same position for your jib block cars as for optimum sailing conditions (moderate air), except you do not want the jib sheeted in as tightly. Remove any excess purchase from your main sheet system; the weight of the sheets can make subtle adjustments in sail trim difficult. Make sure the halyards are tight when you raise the sails. The forestay should sag and the mast lean forward a little when the jib halyard is properly secured.
The objective for successful light air sailing is threefold:
1 Find wind on the water and attain clear air. This is perhaps the single most important concept. When starting behind other boats on the favored end of the line you have dealt yourself a severe blow. Starting at the other end of the line with clear air will put you miles ahead even though it is not the ideal course. Tack to attain clear air if necessary; but don't hesitate to tack toward the next puff.
- Maintain proper balance and attitude of the boat. Heel your boat slightly to leeward to reduce wetted surface and help provide the proper shape in the sails for a good airfoil. Gravity will help do what low wind velocity will not. Maintain proper balance for a neutral helm and minimize movements in the boat that will disturb its attitude relative to the set of the sails and wind direction.
- Don't overtrim your sails! Ease them out a little farther than you normally would in ideal wind conditions. This usually will give better performance.
Other considerations in light air sailing include minimizing your tacks to preserve boat speed, and footing off the wind a little to attain greater boat speed. One effective method of tacking is to use the "roll tack" where a rapid and deliberate shifting of crew weight is made to keep the wind in the sails while changing direction to preserve boat speed. In light air you run the risk of stopping your boat completely with an incorrectly executed tack. Patience, concentration and observance are critical. Look ahead for the catspaws on the water; try and detect the direction and location of the next puff and be there. Do not become over anxious and pinch to windward. Concentrate on sail trim and balance.
Sometimes, no matter how much skill and technique you use, there just isn't any way to make the boat go. There's just no wind. That's when the sails are limp as rags, and you can spit in the water and watch it float by for five minutes. There's only one thing left to do to preserve your sanity: make the most of it! Pull out the jug of ice water, or a cold beer. Or, if you're really ready to cool off, throw a line over the side and take a dip. That will put a whole now perspective on your situation! Just keep in mind that you're out there to have a good time. So keep cool and relax!
As in utilizing the other special techniques for heavy air and moderate air sailing, the techniques required for successful light air sailing are attained only through practice and experience. To be a good all around sailor, you must be willing to go out under all weather conditions and learn to be master of your boat, and master of yourself. Light air sailing tests your patience and persistence severely at times; but practice and time spent sailing in light air are the best teachers.
Tuning Your Tanzer for MODERATE AIR
by Jim Chastain (T-420)
Truly the most pleasurable experience for any sailor is when the weather conditions are ideal for his boat, and he feels confident in handling the boat on all points of sailing. He can then devote much more attention to strategy and tactics on the race course, or just enjoy the scenery if daysailing. For the Tanzer 16 ideal conditions are moderate air, or wind velocities in the 7 to 12 knot range.
For moderate air sailing, your rig must be set up differently than for the other extremes of heavy or light air to obtain maximum sail performance and boat speed. When stepping the mast, ensure that there is about a 2-3 inch gap between the deck and the front of the mast in the deck slot. This will open up the slot between the main and the jib, and promote uniform air flow with a minimum of turbulence for good lift from the main. Don't overtighten the shrouds and forestay; run a fairly loose rig. Rig the downhaul (or Cunningham) and boomvang, but don't overtighten them. These devices should be used only to adjust draft in the main when changing points of sailing. Place your jib block- cars such that the luff of the jib shakes evenly from the top to the bottom when you luff the boat to windward. A double purchase on the mainsheet block system should be more than adequate. Make sure the halyards are tight when you raise the sails. The forestay should sag a little when the jib halyard is properly secured. Adjust the outhaul on the mainsail to provide a smooth unwrinkled shape, and adjust the downhaul (or Cunningham) to put the maximum draft approximately two thirds of the way forward in the sail.
The objective for moderate air sailing is to keep your boat flit and balanced with full power in the sails and maintain a neutral helm except when changing course. This is accomplished mainly by continual adjustments in weight distribution within the boat, subtle adjustments in the tiller to maintain an optimum angle of attack, and playing the mainsheet to help balance the boat when the preceding adjustments fail to do so. You should seek to place the boat "in the groove" sailing to windward, where little or no adjustments in sail trim are necessary. You will feel no pressure on the tiller and sailing seems effortless. This skill is only developed by practice, and is nearly an art itself. Sailing off the wind, a neutral helm and perfect weight distribution are equally important. With spinnaker up, although you arc tempted to position yourself at the back of the cockpit or on the lee rail while at the helm you should not; this could cause an imbalance in the forces on the boat that would require compensation by sail trim adjustment or excessive rudder action. You would sacrifice power and/or reduction of drag for your comfortable position in the boat. For best results, position your crew amidships or slightly off center and yourself as far forward and on the windward rail ready to shift your weight as required. Also, don't overtrim your sails, learn how to ease them to the point of luffing and trim in for full power. Be observant and take advantage of changes in wind direction and velocity. Pull the centerboard halfway up when off the wind to reduce drag and weather helm.
One great way to improve your skill is by sailing at night when your vision is limited. This forces you to use your senses of feel, balance and sound to sail the boat, and develops your "automatic pilot", which is vital to enable you to observe occurrences outside your boat that are important for optimum sailing. Practice and time in the boat is the real key to improvement of your sailing skills.
Tuning Your Tanzer for HEAVY AIR
By, Jim Chastain (T-420)
To obtain maximum enjoyment from your Tanzer 16, and to feel comfortable in the knowledge that you are sailing optimally, under any given weather condition or point of sailing, it is important that you become familiar with how to tune your Tanzer.
With April come the fresh winds of Spring, and it is vitally important to your peace of mind and personal safety that you know how to rig and tune for heavy air. While still on shore, or immediately at launching, prepare your boat for the existing conditions. Once underway the exertion required to deal with the wind and waves will prevent you from making the necessary adjustments.
When stepping the mast, make sure that the mast is placed all the way forward in the deck slot. This will ensure that the sails can be flattened and close up the slot between the main and jib for reduced lift. Don't over tighten the shrouds and forestay; this will allow the mast to flop a little to leeward from one tack to the other, making it easier to keep the boat flat. You can use mast bend to flatten the mainsail. Rig the downhaul (or Cunningham) and the boomvang on the main for tightening (and flattening) the sail. Move your jib block cars all the way back aft from their normal position in the tracks. This will help flatten the bottom of the sail and spill off air from the top of the jib. Put a triple purchase on your mainsheet blocks at the traveler to help with the increased forces that will be transmitted to your arm through the mainsheet as you may have to constantly play the main. Make sure the hiking straps are properly adjusted to permit maximum extension of you and your crew over the side or the boat for hiking out and balancing the heeling moment. When you raise your sails before heading out, make sure that the halyards are as tight as you can get them and secured property, so they won't come loose. Now you're ready to go out!
The objective for heavy air sailing is to KEEP YOUR BOAT FLAT AND BALANCED at all times with as much power in the sails as is practicable. Start your heavy air experience being conservative; as you improve your technique you can opt for more power in the sails. Flatten out your mainsail by tightening the downhaul (or Cunningham), the outhaul and the boomvang. Go ahead and put a little mast and boom bend in it to got the main as flat as possible. 8-12 inches of mast bend is about right. This depowers the sail- you can always put more draft back into it if necessary later on, and its a lot easier than trying to tighten up while underway. Pull the jib in as tight as possible on a beat and cleat it there. Play the main constantly to balance the varying hearing moment on the boat- NEVER CLEAT THE MAIN IN HEAVY AIR! The results can be disastrous! Luff the main all the way and hike out before you even think of luffing the jib. The jib will power the boat through the chop and keep the boat moving forward. If you have a traveler that will permit casing the boom considerably, off the centerline of the boat, do so and flatten your sail with the mainsheet. Look upwind and keep alert to puffs and sudden windshifts. Be ready to move your weight about the boat agilely to compensate for the rapid change in heeling moment.
When sailing off the wind, overtrim the main so as to stall it out a little. This is good insurance against a spinout to weather and consequent spill (AKA "Death Roll"-- Ed.). Also, pull the centerboard up at least halfway to allow the boat to slide to leeward and avoid "tripping" on too much board. Weather helm will reduce and speed will increase enough so that extra lift will make up for the loss of board area.
Be conservative until you've developed your technique for heavy air selling and have the confidence to challenge the elements. Then go for it! Above all, don't let the preceding advice on tuning scare you out of getting out in your Tanzer in the wild stuff. The precautions are advisable but there are only a few thrills in life that can top riding a planing Tanzer 16 across the waves with your hair flying straight back and not a dry stitch of clothing on you-- just like hanging on to a wildcat's tail in a hurricane! Go, get out there, and try it! Watch the more experienced skipper if you're new, or better yet, crew for him. Once you master the boat you'll find there's no better way to sail than in heavy air.
FLYING THE CHUTE: Getting the Most From Your Spinnaker
by Jim Chastain (T-420)
In addition to being the most colorful sail in your bag, and pretty to look at from the shore, the spinnaker, if properly utilized, can provide the most exciting, thrilling, and satisfying experiences you will ever know in your Tanzer 16. There's nothing quite like popping the chute up after rounding the windward mark in a fresh breeze and exploding away from your competitors on a wild plane across the waves. On the other hand, if not properly used it can become the source of ill-timed capsizes and frustrating moments when you go roaring beyond the leeward mark unable to get the thing down while your competitors round the mark for the finish line. One fact is clear: although not needed on a Tanzer 16 to compete, in certain wind conditions it can become an awesome tactical weapon that separates the men from the boys, and the winners from the also-rans.
The spinnaker is your most versatile sail. It develops aerodynamic forces in varying degrees in all situations. The angle of attack at the luff is vitally important to ensure forces are generated in the optimum direction. The shape of the sail is also critical depending on your course off the wind. Ideally, the spinnaker should be full for dead downwind work and relatively flat for a close reach. This poses a problem because for this reason you would ideally want two spinnakers. To prevent the need for purchase of extra sails, and in the spirit of one-design racing, the Tanzer 16 Class Rules allow only one spinnaker on the boat while racing, and there arc precise measurement limitations that provide for maximum overall size and maximum girth dimensions. Consequently, the spinnaker that you own will not be of ideal size or shape for either extreme point of sailing, and techniques for handling and trimming the sail and the strategy of how to properly use it become more important.
Successful use of the spinnaker depends on many different considerations, the first being how it is rigged. The rig needs to be is simple as possible to avoid confusion. Two recommended variations of the rigging plan are:
- Using through-deck dinghy blocks and under-deck check blocks and cleats for less deck clutter and better crew access.
- Using a spinnaker launching chute and bag mounted at the port bow which makes setting and retrieving the sail much easier. To plan your spinnaker rig observe the many variations found on other boats at the next regatta and discuss the pros and cons with the owners.
The second consideration that is vital is spinnaker sets and takedowns. A step-by-step procedure must be developed for your rig on what the skipper must do and what the crew must do in precise order, and it must be practiced endlessly to ensure fast, trouble-free sets and takedowns. The crew must be totally knowledgeable with the location and function of the guy, sheet, topping lift, and downhaul. Normally a spinnaker set will occur like this:
When approaching the windward mark the crew will set the pole in a horizontal position full forward on the forestay oil the side on which the chute will be carried. Upon rounding the mark, the skipper settles oil his intended course, and while steering from a crouched position with his knees pulls in tile spinnaker halyard raising the sail. The crew, after releasing the sheet from the guy book on the leeward side, pulls in on the guy and sheet as the sail goes up. If there's any wind at all, its advisable for both the crew and skipper to position their weight on windward side for balance. The guy should be pulled in and cleated with the pole in a position perpendicular to the wind, and then the sheet pulled in to the proper point of trim on the sail. Once set and under control, the jib should be lowered by the crew and stowed under bungee cords, and final adjustments to sail trim made. The crew should never cleat the sheet of the sail, but should continually seek to maintain perfect trim. The sheet should be let out until the luff curls ever so slightly and then quickly trimmed in to take out the curl. As the boat accelerates, the apparent wind angle to the luff will change and the pole will need to be eased forward, and the trim adjusted.
Depending on the circumstances and wind velocity, it may not be advisable to lower the jib. Usually, lowering the jib will minimize disturbance to the airflow around the spinnaker, however, in strong winds it may be difficult to get the jib back up with the same tension on the forestay, which is vitally important to upwind performance, so the jib may be luffed with adverse affect on the spinnaker. Sometimes, the jib can provide additional lift on the proper point of sailing and can be trimmed in, but, be careful about creating the jibsheets while the spinnaker is up - one good gust and you may be over.
Normally, a spinnaker takedown will occur like this: When approaching the leeward mark bear away slightly and pull the pole back to square up the spinnaker- this makes takedown a lot easier. Timing between the skipper and crew is vital. As the skipper cases the halyard down he must also pull in on the retrieval line and maintain some tension through the sail. The crew must case the sheet and guy out as the sail is pulled into the launching chute; not too slow to impede the effort, but not to fast to drop the sail in the water. If the launcher is not used, the crew simply takes the clew in hand and pulls the corner of the sail in, letting the sheet fly loose, and rapidly bundles the sail up taking it in completely outside the windward sidestay. Practice makes perfect, and time is of the essence here to prepare for a smart mark rounding and trim-in for the windward leg.
Another consideration important to the successful use of the spinnaker is how to use it once it is up, how to best negotiate the offwind legs of the course and how to jibe to your advantage. A lot depends upon the wind conditions and predicted variations but the following pointers should help:
- Getting the chute up quickly is important, but don't put it up until you are certain of the wind direction on the reach. It may be too close a reach for the spinnaker, and having it up before you find out could be disastrous. Look at what you competitors are doing before you commit, unless you're in the lead, and then preparation is the key.
- If the wind is building, sail above the rhumb line initially on a close reach and save the most wind for slowest point of sailing as you approach the jibing mark on a broad reach or run. If the wind is dying take your slowest point of sailing initially by going low with the strongest wind, and save a faster close reach approaching the mark for later. Always keep in mind that the rhumb line and clear air is the fastest course.
- On a downwind leg (of Olympic courses) it is usually faster to tack downwind on reaches than to run straight for the mark.
- Allow ample room at the jibing mark to bear away, square up the chute, and jibe before trimming in for the reach. Avoid jibing from close reach to close reach.
- Establish a set procedure for jibing the spinnaker. Usually, a jibe will occur like this: When approaching the jibing mark bear away and square up the spinnaker to the wind. The crew puts the sheet under the guy hook to stabilize the sail, and at the signal pulls the boom over to jibe the main. While still before the wind, the crew disconnects the pole from the mast, secures the new guy (old sheet) to the end of the pole, drops the old guy (new sheet) from the pole and connects the pole to the mast. As the crew takes the new sheet out of the guy hook, the skipper cases the guy and pole forward and brings the boat up on the proper reaching course, trimming in the main as appropriate. The crew trims the spinnaker sheet in accordingly as the boat begins to reach. Practice makes perfect!
- When approaching the jibing mark to windward and outside of a pack of boats, bear away and jibe early, and come in on a reach on the opposite tack aiming for the hole between the mark and the pack as they jibe. You can pick up more places using this kind of mark rounding tactic than any method of trying to outsail the other guy.
- In fresh winds flying the chute takes a lot of determination, guts, and skill. On the close reach you and your crew should both be hiked out to balance the boat, positioned aft in the cockpit; the harder the wind blows the further aft you need to be for balance and to promote planing. With the pole forward and sheet trimmed you must depend more on your main to provide anti-gust control. As usual bear away in the puffs and conic up in the lulls. When a gust hits it will tend to cause the boat to turn up into the wind and broach or capsize. To control this, be sure to keep your main trimmed in so that you can stall it by over-trimming when the gust hits. Put some muscle in your tiller pulling it toward you and bear away.
CAPSIZES or "I didn't know this was a submarine race!"
by Dave Permar (T-165)
One of the more frequent questions that I hear from new and prospective Tanzer 16 sailors is whether or not the Tanzer 16 will capsize. Also in reviewing the archives of the Class Association, I noticed that some of the more interesting photos were of Tanzer 16s in a less thin upright position, so I thought it might be fun to rerun these photos and talk about my experiences in capsizing.
The Tanzer 16 is a very stable boat for its weight and size. Nevertheless, any sailboat without a keel will capsize and every sailor must be mentally and physically prepared for this possibility because it will happen sooner or later. It is certainly true that some people do not have the physical ability to deal with a capsize. On the other hand, there are some pretty poor physical specimens in Fleet 1 (myself not excluded) who have survived many capsizes without permanent injury. Nevertheless, I have seen a lot of new sailors or their crew become intimidated by the fear of capsizing when I was sure they did have the physical ability to deal with the situation. As is frequently the case, capsizing's bark is worse thin its bite. Churchill's adage that "all we have to fear is fear itself" certainly applies.
One of my first regattas was at Oriental and right at the start of the race a thunderstorm rolled down the Neuse River canceling the race and causing many of the boats to capsize. I was fortunate enough to be able to keep my boat upright and sail back into shore without great difficulty. After that experience, I thought I could handle almost any situation without capsizing. Much to my surprise, during the very next regatta, I capsized while sailing in a nice, steady, breeze of approximately 15 knots simply because neither my crew nor I were quick enough in getting back up on the windward rail after tacking. The moral or the story, of course, is "don't get too cocky - there are probably as many ways to turn the boat over as there are fish in the sea." Fleet 1 sailors remember the time, two or three years ago, when Dave Gilbert capsized his Tanzer- in a little puff or less thin five knots while he and his crew were sitting on the leeward side of the boat.
I personally consider myself a fair conservative sailor. Nevertheless, I usually average about one capsize a season. (Although, last year I didn't have any and the year before I had five.) It has always been my experience that the apprehension of the capsize is worse than the actual event itself. Once I am over and in the water, I usually find that I am enjoying myself. Some Tanzer sailors enjoy sailing their boat “all-out" and use their spinnaker in almost any wind condition. These sailors are assured of gaining a great deal of experience in capsizing their boats. Jim Strickland, Roy Rysdon, and all-time capsize champion, Dave Gilbert, immediately come to mind. With all the practice, capsizing can become a part of the racing routine. If the captain or crew can go over the windward rail and step immediately on the centerboard as the boat is being knocked down, and before the mast and sail become submerged, the Tanzer can be righted quickly. This will also prevent the boat from becoming completely, swamped. Under these circumstances, it is possible for a Tanzer to get right back in the race. In their younger days, I have seen Roy Rysdon and Dave Gilbert perform this feat of magic on several occasions. Once, even I had a young, athletic crew who could perform this feat. However, for the rest of us mere mortals, a knockdown results in our falling in the water on the leeward side of the boa t. By the time we swim around to the centerboard, the mast and sail are under water and righting the boat becomes a major task. This usually means we are through racing for the day.
My procedure for recovering from a capsize is as follows: I send my crew around to the bottom of the boat with instructions to hold onto the centerboard to keep from slipping into the hull and to keep the boat from turning turtle (yes, Virginia, the Tanzer will turn turtle). I grab the scat cushion and go immediately to the end of the mast where I put the scat cushion or a life jacket on the top of the mast to keep the mast from going to the bottom. If the mast goes to the bottom and the water is less than 25 feet deep, the mast will probably become stuck in the mud or sand on the bottom making it very difficult to right and increasing the chances of ending up with a bent mast. Then, I return to the boat and free all the halyards and sheets and attempt to pull the sails down. (You do this so you don't have to lift too much water and to keep the boat from capsizing immediately again after it is righted.) Then, if my crew is female, I go help her stand and pull on the centerboard to right the boat or, if my crew is heavy and male. I return to the end of the mast to try to lift the mast out of the water. Once the top of the mast breaks the surface of the water, the boat will spring up fairly easily, but there are times when that is easier said than done.
If there is a crash boat helping, give them the tender so that they can gently pull the bow into the wind. If there is no power boat, you might try pulling the bow into the wind yourself. If you are in the middle of a thunderstorm, I suggest waiting until after it is over before attempting to right the boat. I have spent many a pleasant summer afternoon floating in the lee of my capsized boat waiting for a storm abate. Once the boat is up, one of the crew must crawl into the boat over the stern. The gunnels will be almost awash and you will need to begin bailing to gain freeboard and stability. It is not a good idea to tow the boat while it still has a substantial amount of water in it.
For a Tanzer sailor who is a reasonable, good swimmer and comfortable in the water, a capsize is not an unpleasant experience. The ever-present possibility of a capsize adds a zing to the effort to balance the forces or wind and water- you know that your indiscretions will be promptly punished. However, this very real possibility makes it imperative that we not go sailing when the water is too cold. In my opinion, anytime the water temperature is below 60 degrees there is good reason for caution. If you are sailing when the temperature is below 60 degrees, you need to make sure that help is available to get you out of the water quickly. This is one of the advantages of participating in group activities with your fleet or yacht club. This danger is greatest not in the Fall, but in the Spring, when sailing fever hits. Here in North Carolina, we get some beautiful, balmy weather in March and sometimes even late February when the air temperature is well above 70 degrees F, but the water temperature is still too cold for sailing. Remember, safe sailing is good sailing.
The Key to a Fast Boat is HULL PREPARATION
By Jim Chastain (T-420)
Proper hull preparation is essential for a fast boat, especially in light air conditions where the effects of drag and skin friction are pronounced. At least once per season, it is a good idea to turn your hull over and give it a good cleaning and repair any surface defects that may be visible. For the racing enthusiast, the frequency and extent of hull work is often greater to ensure as fast a hull as possible. The following are some helpful pointers:
- To turn your hull over, find a level grassy spot in the yard and "launch the boat". It takes two people to pick it up and roll it over on one side. Use a couple of 2 X 4 timbers to get the hull off the ground- position timbers to protect the shroud plates when you roll the boat over. If you are planning just a one afternoon work session, consider rolling the hull against the side of the house or a tree for easier access.
- Thoroughly wash the hull with a good cleanser to remove stains and road grease-remember that fiberglass is porous and soaks up stains.
- Repair surface defects with a good grade fiberglass putty such as "marinetex". When it hardens, sand the putty with coarse paper or work with a rasp to match the surface.
- Sand down the rough spots with #220 paper, but go easy- the gel coat is thin and delicate.
- Finally, wet sand the entire hull below the waterline with #400 and #600 paper- the smoother the finish, the faster the hull.
- Post-sanding treatment can consist of buffing or the application of a marine silicone wax such as "Star Brite".
- Also, don't forget to remove the centerboard and rudder for smoothing. It is desirable that each has a rounded leading edge and tapered trailing edge for maximum reduction of drag. After filing down to achieve the proper shape, wet sand with #400 paper and then buff with steel wool for smoothness. It is worthwhile after each regatta weekend to rub the rudder and centerboard down with steel wool to keep it smooth.
Skin friction accounts for the largest portion of drag counteracting the lift forces from the sails at low speeds. At higher speeds, frictional resistance from the hull has less affect on drag, and the wave-making resistance of the hull becomes the determinant until planing is achieved. For a Tanzer 16, at 2.8 knots speed, skin friction accounts for about 85% of the drag; at 4 knots about 74%; and at 6 knots (flying), it drops to about 45%. To ensure that you have as fast a hull as possible, keep it smooth!
US National Championships
1969 Oriental, NC 1970 Lake Waccamaw, NC 1971 Lake Waccamaw, NC
- N.C. "Hap" Crowe, Jr. 1. J.M. "Dick" Coburn 1. N.C. "Hap" Crowe, Jr.
- John M. Poole, Jr. 2. Thomas P. Hayden 2. John M. Poole, Jr.
- W. Everett London, Jr. 3. W. Everett London, Jr. 3. J.M. "Dick" Coburn
- Curtis Elmer 4. Curtis Elmer
- N.C. "Hap" Crowe, Jr. 5. Herbert Friedlander
1972 Lake Waccamaw, NC 1973 New Bern, NC 1974 New Bern, NC
- J.M. "Dick" Coburn 1. Ivan Elliott 1. Ivan Elliott
- Ted Bowser 2. Curtis Elmer 2. Curtis Elmer
- N.C. "Hap" Crowe 3. Herbert Friedlander 3. Herbert Friedlander
- John M. Poole, Jr. 4. Thomas D. Hayden 4. Thomas D. Hayden
- Herbert Friedlander 5. H. C. Blanchard 5. H. C. Blanchard
1975 Lake Waccamaw, NC 1976 Falmouth, MA 1977 New Bern, NC
- Ivan Elliott 1. Frank A. Hunt, Jr. 1. Frank A. Hunt, Jr.
- H. C. Blanchard 2. Curtis Elmer 2. Ivan Elliott
- Curtis Elmer 3. David B. Gilbert 3. Harry F. Layman
- J.M. "Dick" Coburn 4. Harry Layman 4. J.M. "Dick" Coburn
- Thomas D. Hayden 5. Joe Camilleri 5. Roy Rysdon
1978 Falmouth, MA 1979 Edenton, NC 1980 Lake Waccamaw, NC
- Frank A. Hunt, Jr. 1. James C. Lamb III 1. Jess Coburn
- Joe Camilleri 2. Ivan Elliott 2. Ivan Elliott
- James C. Lamb 3. H. C. Blanchard 3. James C. Lamb
- Bruce Baltz 4. Charles Robinson 4. H. C. Blanchard
- David B. Gilbert 5. Jim Strickland 5. G. Robert Lee
1981 Washington, NC 1982 Oriental, NC 1983 Kerr Lake, NC
- H. C. Blanchard 1. James C. Lamb 1. James C. Lamb
- Ivan Elliott 2. Tom Jones 2. H. C. Blanchard
- James C. Lamb 3. H. C. Blanchard 3. John Manifold
- Jess Coburn 4. Fred Dorr 4. James C. Chastain
- George M. Smart 5. James C. Chastain 5. Robert S. Lamb
1984 Oriental, NC 1985 Kerr Lake, NC 1986 Kerr Lake, NC
- J.M. "Dick" Coburn 1. J.M. "Dick" Coburn 1. George M. Smart
- Robert S. Lamb 2. Robert S. Lamb 2. J.M. "Dick" Coburn
- H. C. Blanchard 3. George M. Smart 3. Alasdair McGregor
- George M. Smart 4. Alasdair McGregor 4. James C. Chastain
- Peter A. Thorn 5. James C. Lamb 5. Peter A. Thorn
Mid-Atlantic District Championships
1975 Kerr Lake, NC 1976 Kerr Lake, NC 1977 Lake Waccamaw, NC
- Thomas D. Hayden 1. H. C. Blanchard 1. Ivan Elliott
- H. C. Blanchard 2. Ivan Elliott 2. Harry F. Layman
- Herbert Friedlander 3. Harry F. Layman 3. H. C. Blanchard
- N.C. "Hap" Crowe 4. Gilbert Vick 4. Jess Coburn
- Roy C. Rysdon 5. Thomas D. Hayden 5. George M. Smart
1978 Washington, NC 1979 Lake Waccamaw, NC 1980 Washington, NC
- Ivan Elliott 1. Ivan Elliott 1. James C. Lamb
- H. C. Blanchard 2. David B. Gilbert 2. G. Robert Lee
- Gilbert Vick 3. J.M. "Dick" Coburn 3. H. C. Blanchard
- James C. Lamb 4. H. C. Blanchard 4. Ivan Elliott
- George M. Smart 5. Marvin Pike 5. George M. Smart
1981 Washington, NC 1982 Lake Waccamaw, NC 1983 Oriental, NC
- Ivan Elliott 1. Ivan Elliott 1. Robert S. Lamb
- G. Robert Lee 2. James C. Lamb 2. Ivan Elliott
- James C. Lamb 3. J.M. "Dick" Coburn 3. Amy Gilbert
- H. C. Blanchard 4. Robert S. Lamb 4. David Permar
- George M. Smart 5. Jess Coburn 5. Allen Smith
1984 Lake Waccamaw, NC 1985 Alexandria, VA 1986 Lake Waccamaw, NC
- H. C. Blanchard 1. Robert S. Lamb 1. J.M. "Dick" Coburn
- Robert S. Lamb 2. George M. Smart 2. H. C. Blanchard
- J.M. "Dick" Coburn 3. Alasdair McGregor 3. George M. Smart
- Fred Dorr 4. David Permar 4. David Permar
- David Permar 5. Robert P. Macklen 5. Robert P. Macklen
1987 Lake Waccamaw, NC
New England District Championships
1972 Falmouth, MA 1973 Falmouth, MA 1974 Falmouth, MA
- Phil S. Robertson 1. Phil S. Robertson 1. Roger L. Gregg
- Roger L. Gregg 2. Roger L. Gregg 2. Curtis Elmer
- Ben Seagraves 3. Thomas D. Hayden
- Don Tofias 4. G. Forth
- Curtis Elmer
1975 Falmouth, MA 1976 Falmouth, MA 1977 Falmouth, MA
- Joe Camilleri 1. Joe Camilleri 1. Joe Camilleri
- H.C. "Butch" Blanchard 2. Phil S. Robertson
- Phil S. Robertson 3. Frank A. Hunt, Jr.
- Roger L. Gregg 4. Roger L. Gregg
- Frank A. Hunt, Jr. 5. S. Estes
1978 Falmouth, MA 1979 Falmouth, MA 1980 Falmouth, MA
- Darryl Van Hutton 1. Charley Robinson 1. Robert L. Smith
- James C. Lamb 2. Rod Baltz 2. Martha Hanscom
- Keith Cassidy 3. Jordalen 3. Hanz Tanzer
- Joe Camilleri 4. Frank A. Hunt, Jr. 4. D.R. Hughes
- George M. Smart 5. Roger L. Gregg 5. J. Rapoza
1981 1982 Lake Pontoosuk, MA 1983
no record 1. Tom Jones no record
- Tim Horseman
- Kirk Leslie
- Brooks Bridges
- Hanz Tanzer
1984 1985 1986
no record no record no record
NC State Championships
1972 Oriental, NC 1973 Oriental, NC 1974 Oriental, NC
- Curtis Elmer 1. Curtis Elmer 1. Thomas D. Hayden
- J.M. "Dick" Coburn 2. J.M. "Dick," Coburn 2. Curtis Elmer
- N.C. "Hap" Crowe, Jr. 3. E.Y. "Chris" Stafford 3. H. C. Blanchard
- Herbert Friedlander 4. Herbert Friedlander 4. J.M. "Dick" Coburn
- Ivan Elliott 5. Gilbert Vick
1975 High Rock, NC 1976 Lake Waccamaw, NC 1977 Oriental, NC
- H. C. Blanchard 1. H. C. Blanchard 1. Ivan Elliott
- J.M. "Dick" Coburn 2. J.M. "Dick" Coburn 2. H. C. Blanchard
- Ivan Elliott 3. Ivan Elliott 3. George M. Smart
- Roy C. Rysdon 4. Roy C. Rysdon 4. Roy C. Rysdon
- Jake Barnhardt
1978 4 Race Series 1979 7 Race Series 1980 Lake Norman, NC
- James C. Lamb III 1. Ivan Elliott 1. James C. Lamb
- George M. Smart 2. David B. Gilbert 2. J.M. "Dick" Coburn
- Jim Clowers 3. George M. Smart 3. James L. Chastain
- Jim Strickland (4) 4. Jim Strickland 4. G. Robert Lee
- Deke Tatersall (4) 5. Marvin Pike 5. Robert Eskridge
1981 Lake Waccamaw, NC 1982 Kerr Lake, NC 1983 Lake Waccamaw, NC
- H. C. Blanchard 1. Robert S. Lamb 1. Jess Coburn
- J.M. "Dick" Coburn 2. James C. Chastain 2. Ivan Elliott
- Ivan Elliott 3. James C. Lamb 3. J.M. "Dick" Coburn
- Robert S. Lamb 4. Weldon Howe 4. George M. Smart
- George M. Smart 5. Tom Jones 5. H. C. Blanchard
1985 Waccamaw, NC 1986 Jordan Lake, NC 1987 Jordan Lake, NC
- George M. Smart 1. John Manifold 1. H. C. Blanchard
- Jess Coburn 2. Matthew Fleming 2. George M. Smart
- H. C. Blanchard 3. Peter A. Thorn 3. Ken Whitt
- Robert S. Lamb 4. Alasdair McGregor 4. Peter A. Thorn
- Jack Vereen 5. George M. Smart 5. Matthew Fleming
Peter B. Williams, Jr. Memorial Trophy
(A Tanzer Fleet One Award)
1973 W. D. Van Geison
1974 B. H. Perry, Jr.
1975 R. G. Minor
1976 Don Kelly
1977 Ralph McGregor
1978 Weldon M. Howe
1979 James P. Clowers
1980 James C. Chastain, III
1981 David H. Permar, Jr.
1982 Alasdair McGregor
1983 Lawrence P. Miller, Jr.
1984 Robert P. Macklen
1985 Matthew Fleming
1986 W. Reed Whitten
Peter B. Williams was a capable young skipper who sailed his Tanzer 16 with Fleet One in the Carolina Sailing Club. He died at an early age before he had a chance to win any silver. In his memory the Williams family established this perpetual award in his name for the Tanzer 16 Fleet One skipper with the best record in the CSC regular season who also has never won any silver.
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TANZER 16 CLASS ASSOCIATION, INC.
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Dear Owners and Friends of the Tanzer 16:
Welcome to the fun and excitement of Tanzer 16 sailing, and the equally enjoyable association with Tanzer 16 sailors!
The Tanzer 16 is one of the most versatile sailing dinghies on the market today. With her ease of rigging and handling, the Tanzer 16 is a comfortable and safe, but highly responsive beginning boat or family daysailer. With genoa and spinnaker gear added, she becomes an exhilarating one-design suitable for competitive class racing. She planes readily and points as high as most outright racing boats.
The Tanzer 16 Class Association is a non-profit organization comprised wholly of Tanzer 16 owners who are committed to fostering the growth and well being of the Tanzer 16 Class through promotion of family sailing, class racing, and other instructional and social activities. Over the years, the Class Association has provided continued support to its membership by organizing class sanctioned events, publishing the Class Association newsletter, 'The Tanzer 16 Sailor", and The Tanzer 16 Handbook, and sponsoring well-received sailing clinics. Now, the Tanzer 16 Class Association is pleased to have undertaken the organizational and fiscal sponsorship of the Tanzer 16 through its purchase of the ownership rights and molds with which to assure the continued manufacture of the Tanzer 16.
This Class Handbook, which was ably edited by Pete Thorn, describes the principles by which the association is guided, as well as rules and specifications which are vital to successful one-design competition. Also included are the official plans for the boat, class measurer's rulings, rigging and safety tips, a prototype fleet constitution and bylaws, and numerous member contributions on the successful sailing of the Tanzer 16.
With your interest and participation, the Tanzer 16 Class Association will continue to be a vehicle to enhance our enjoyment of sailing and the Tanzer'16. Whatever your questions or areas of interest, we welcome the opportunity to hear from you and encourage your active participation in Class Association Activities.
1987 Class President